Influence Of Levels Of Leadership On Job Satisfaction, Work-Life Balance And Empowerment
Levels of leadership
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AbstractLeadership is considered to be a dynamic process that occurs at multiple levels and is influenced by a number of mediating and moderating concepts. The present research evaluated well-established links between immediate supervisor job satisfaction, work-life balance and empowerment together with senior leadership support, and the way it influences work outcomes above and beyond immediate supervisors. It was also hypothesized that senior leadership support moderates the relationship between immediate supervisor support and work outcomes. Results were evaluated for employees at different levels, namely, individual contributors, managers, and upper management. Findings suggest that although important, immediate supervisors are not the most influential contributors to employee’s work outcomes, and that the executive leadership team has a greater impact on employees’ feelings of job satisfaction, work-life balance and empowerment. The moderation hypothesis was not supported suggesting that presence of both leadership levels are important and influence work outcomes positively. No results were found to support that there is a difference in the way both leadership levels affect employees at different levels. The results of this research are beneficial for both applied and research audiences as it emphasizes the importance of leadership behaviors at all levels on employee work attitudes.