Confucianism is one of the great ethical and philosophical systems in the world, based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC). This Confucian Ethics collection includes works of Confucius, Confucian classics like the disciple Mencius, and mainly contemporary articles on Confucian applied ethics such as education ethics, political ethics, business ethics. - 儒家思想以中国哲学家孔子(公元前551-479 年)的言传身教为基础,是世界上最伟大的伦理和哲学体系之一。该收藏文集包括了孔子的著作,孔子门徒孟子的著作等儒家经典学说,以及当代儒家应用伦理,如家庭伦理、政治伦理和商业伦理等方面的文章。本收藏还在建设初期,更多文档在不断添加中

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  • Responses of Religions Outside of Islam toward the Ecological Crisis

    Lalu Pattimura Farhan; Prosmala Hadisaputra (Universitas Islam Indonesia, 2022-07-01)
    This article is the result of an online-based literature review. This study formulates the following question: what are the responses of religions outside Islam in Indonesia regarding the ecological crisis? The primary data of this study are articles from scientific journals that focus on theo-ecology from the perspectives of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, and Confucianism. The data were obtained through the Google Scholar and DOAJ pages. This study finds that first, Christianity responds to the ecological crisis by presenting the theo-ecological concept as part of the affirmation of faith in God. The teaching of environmental conservation is a way of glorifying all of God’s creations. Second, Hinduism responds to the ecological crisis through its five teachings, namely Rta, Yadnya, Danu Ktih, Rwa Bhineda, and Tri Hita Karana, including Parhyangan Pawongan and Weakening. Third, Buddhism responds to environmental conservation with its teachings that emphasize the importance of beauty (aesthetics), as found in the Dhammapada-Khuddhaka Nikāya. Fourth, Confucianism responds to the ecological crisis through moral teachings such as protecting the environment.
  • Rethinking the Mengzi’s Concept of Tian 天

    Kevin J. Turner (MDPI AG, 2023-08-01)
    There is an undeniable relationship between humanity and tian 天 in the philosophy of the Mengzi 孟子 where the latter is generally conceived as the metaphysical or ontological source of the morality and ethics of the former. However, this line of interpretation is misleading because it not only imports foreign notions of transcendence into the thought of the Mengzi but also because it ignores the contribution humans make to tian. At the same time, there have been attempts to read the Mengzi in biological terms, thereby naturalizing human morality. This likewise does not satisfy as an adequate account of human morality because it also reduces it to a natural or biological realm where human culture is an external accessory. However, the relationship between humanity and tian in the Mengzi is one of mutual influence and emergence; therefore, this article analyzes their relationship and argues that tian is to be understood as “tradition” whereby humans in their process of becoming humans contribute to and invigorate it as successive generations carry it on into the future.
  • The issue of enforcement in Chinese corporate governance

    Lam, Charles Kwan Nam ACCT; Goo, S.H. (2015)
    Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to discuss two important aspects of enforcement of ethical standards: indirect enforcement, that is the Confucian approach, and common law enforcement. In the context of Confucianism, one must adopt the ethical teachings in a moderate or "middle" way. We should not be too attached to the liberal interpretation of the Confucian texts but must have the wisdom to apply the concepts case-by-case. The issue then is if there are no legal consequences or punishment, then how we can ensure that someone will continue to comply with the standards. Design/methodology/approach-The authors analyze the Confucian texts in relation to the enforcement of the ethical standards. The authors investigate the Entity Maximization and Sustainability Model by referring to the exit option, the voice option, the influence exerted on the board of directors, the sending of the Confucian representatives to sit on the board of directors, the oppression remedy and statutory derivative actions. The authors adopt a comparative study approach and argue that the Confucian enforcement of ethics can fill in the gap where common law rules of procedure cannot reach in the context of Chinese corporate governance system. Findings-By referring to the Confucian teaching, there are several ways to encourage the superior to follow the ethical standards, namely, education, fear of punishment by society, peer pressure, intrinsic value, continuing education and codification of Confucian value/moral standards. In addition, there are several enforcement options based on the Entity Maximization and Sustainability Model, which is highly relevant to the enforcement model of Confucianism. Originality/value-It is the first of its kind in strengthening the enforcement of Chinese business ethics by adopting the Confucian approach and common law approach. The two are not mutually exclusive but complementary with each other to bring the enforcement of Chinese business ethics to the next level.
  • The Intrinsic Value of Confucianism and Its Relevance to the Legal System in Hong Kong and China

    Lam, Charles Kwan Nam; Goo, S.H. (2015)
    The objective of this article is to explore the intrinsic value of Confucianism and its relationship with the common law in the area of corporate governance and see how they can both work together to solve the corporate governance problems in China. In the course of analysis, we take a qualitative approach in adopting a case study to illustrate how Confucianism can be applied in the course of business management to address problems such as the appointment of board members, conflicting directorships, auditor independence, conflict of interest, corruption, and manipulation. We propose that the Western institution of corporate governance system can co-exist with Confucianism as the guiding compass for the direction of a company in Hong Kong and may have reference value for China.
  • Confucian Multiculturalism: A Kantian Reinterpretation of the Classic of Rites

    Andrew Ka Pok Tam (University of Warsaw, 2023-07-01)
    Chinese Communist monocultural policies, notably the re-education camps for the Uyghurs in Xinjiang, have recently been condemned for violating human rights. In response to critics, the Chinese Communist Party frequently replied that one should not impose Western concepts of democracy, liberty, and human rights on the Chinese people. Nevertheless, instead of introducing Western philosophies criticizing the current Chinese Communist monoculturalism; with the help of a modern reinterpretation of the Classic of Rites, this paper aims to construct a Confucian Multiculturalism and argues that: (1) the Classic of Rites explicitly warned against cultural assimilations of “barbarians” into the “civilized” Empire, (2) the Classic of Rites acknowledges cultural diversities, and (3) although the Classic of Rites does not explain clearly why the imperial court should tolerate cultural diversities, a Kantian reinterpretation of the Chinese concept of 敬 Jing implies the respects for minority rights. In doing so, this paper formulates Confucian Multiculturalism as a new model of the Chinese philosophy of culture which asserts cultural diversity.
  • Konfusianisme sebagai Sabuk Pengaman RRT

    R. Tuty Nur Mutia Enoch Muas (Faculty of Humanities, Universitas Indonesia, 2020-08-01)
    The slogans propagated by Chinese leader Hu Jintao—namely “rise in peace”, “a harmonious socialist society”, and “a harmonious world”—reflects the country’s age-old Confucian values. Considering the fact that the PRC only recognizes communism as the state ideology and that Confucianism was subjected to harsh criticism during the Cultural Revolution era (1966–1976), the presence of Confucian values in PRC’s political propaganda becomes an interesting research topic. Both Confucianism and communism put the state as the center of power and sovereignty. This research used the historicalchronological approach by examining the attitude of the PRC government towards Confucianism from 1980 to 2012. Results show that such a consistent philosophy has been successful in strengthening the government’s legitimacy. As it continues to rise, the PRC needs to adopt a robust philosophical basis such as Confucianism to serve as part of its soft power. Confucianism has been adjusted to the country’s current situations and utilized so extensively for decades that it can be considered as PRC’s main vehicle for national development. This article examines and presents the historical role of Confucianism in PRC’s rise.
  • Konfucjusz i szkoła nauczycieli ceremonii (Rujia) czyli o chińskiej kulturze politycznej

    Wójcik, Anna (2016)
    This paper describes Confucian ceremonies and the objectives that were assigned to them in socio-political life and religious practices, as well as the artistic and spiritual journey aimed at self-realization.
  • Magic and Reformation Calvinism in Max Weber’s sociology

    Barbalet, Jack (Sage Publications Ltd., 2018)
    Weber’s claim that Calvinism eliminated magic from the world, inserted into The Protestant Ethic in 1920 and arising out of research reported in The Sociology of Religion, entails a sociological but also a theological proposition identified in this article. Weber’s conceptualization of magic permits his examination of the economic ethics of the world religions. Non-European cases, including China, are examined by Weber to confirm his Protestant Ethic argument regarding modern capitalism. He holds that Confucian rationality, associated with bureaucratic order, is compromised by its tolerance of magic. Weber contrasts this with the Calvinist rejection of magic. Weber’s claims regarding Calvinist demagicalization are made without regard to the Reformation Calvinist obsession with satanic witchcraft, in which the efficacy of magic is accepted as real. The distance between Calvinism and Confucianism, essential to Weber’s argument, is thus narrowed.
  • God and conceptions of immanence and transcendence in Aquinas and Mengzi

    Jānis Tālivaldis Ozoliņš; Ozoliņš, Jānis Tālivaldis (Springer, 2016)
    The immanence and transcendence of God is clearly outlined in Aquinas and these, he sees as being complementary rather than separate. Only in God are existence and essence united, since he is a simple being and so utterly transcends created things. Nevertheless, God is immanent in His creation because created things depend for their existence on God, who sustains them in their existence. The notion of the transcendence and immanence of God is not so clear in Confucian philosophy. Matteo Ricci in his classic text, T’ien-chu Shih-i [ The True Meaning of the Lord of Heaven , 天主實義] considers the question of whether the concept of the Lord of Heaven corresponds to the Christian God and though there are similarities there are important distinctions (Ricci, The true meaning of the Lord of Heaven. Trans. Introduction and notes D. Lancashire and P. Hu Kuo-chen, ed. by E.J. Malatesta. The Institute of Jesuit Sources, St. Louis, 1985). Transcendence and immanence are present in Mèngzǐ and these concepts in Aquinas and Mèngzǐ are outlined and compared.
  • Confucius’ Ontological Ethics

    Georgios Steiris (The NKUA Applied Philosophy Research Laboratory, 2023-06-01)
    Confucius associates the good and the beautiful. Li (translated variously as “ritual propriety,” “ritual,” “etiquette,” or “propriety”) embodies the entire spectrum of interaction with humans, nature, and even material objects. I argue that Confucius attempts to introduce an ethical ontology, not of “what,” but of “the way.” The “way” of reality becomes known with the deliberate participation to the Dao. In other words, through interaction. The way people co-exist demonstrates the rationality of the associations of living and functioning together. Li, as an aesthetic-moral principle, embodies the entire spectrum of one’s interaction with humans, nature, and even material objects. Li is a constitutive element of Confucian ethics and politics, highlighting the importance of beauty, and not only goodness, in human action. The worthiness of human action is judged both aesthetically and morally. Moreover, I hold that Confucius’ ethical ontology is not an ontology of “whatness” but of “howness,” according to the Dao, since Confucius primary concern was not to define the Dao, but to restore the Dao of the ancient sage-kings. The morality of the action is dependent on the way it is performed, according to the mandates of the Dao.

    Qian Zhang (16376421) (2023-06-15)
    This dissertation attempts to explain a uniquely modern phenomenon—totalitarianism—through a case study of Chinese totalitarianism. It seeks to solve the puzzle of why the Chinese people’s inclinations, manners, customs, and morals were particularly suitable for totalitarian rule, and its thesis is that Confucianism laid the moral and psychological foundations of Chinese totalitarianism, paving the way for socialism and communism’s takeover of China in the twentieth century. It is this Confucian substratum that distinguishes Chinese totalitarianism from Western parallels. It is true that socialist and communist ideas were significant in advancing the Chinese Communist Party’s dictatorship, but the Chinese did not succumb to a socialism or communism imported from abroad. In the West, totalitarian ideologies bewitched masses suffering from economic crises and social unrest, who were thus willing to accept a centralized government led by a “strong man” promising economic renewal and restoral of order. In China, those ideologies only took root because of and on the basis of their accordance with the preexisting Confucianism. This dissertation includes in-depth and extensive textual analysis of original Confucian texts. Its theoretical analysis of Confucius’s original thought, in particular his ethical and political teachings, illustrates how traditional Chinese political culture, nurtured in Confucian ethics, predisposed the Chinese people to a totalitarian solution to political problems. Chapter 2 presents the analysis’s method and terminology, which are unconventional. It explicates a few key terms which are essential to the Confucian canon, but which have long been mistranslated in the English literature. Chapter 3 reviews the literature of totalitarianism and proposes a (re)conceptualization of totalitarianism deviating from conventional treatments. Chapter 4 turns to the analysis of the intellectual characteristics of the ru school of thought, explaining the amenability of Chinese society to a totalitarian rule depending on mass obedience and the inability of individuals to think for themselves. It is shown that human hermeneutics—modes of interpreting and understanding phenomena—are realized fundamentally differently in China than in the West. Chapter 5 examines ru ethics, the moral foundation of traditional Chinese politics, which is here termed family politics. Comparing Western accounts of ethics with 伦理 (lun li) demonstrates the essential differences between Chinese and Western morality. Chapter 6 concerns China’s traditional political culture, which shaped China’s imperial politics and is still robust in today’s China. Finally, Chapter 7 explains why European socialism, an ideology seemingly alien to Chinese culture, nonetheless was able to flourish in China. This chapter also addresses the question of why other East Asian countries, also influenced by the ru school of thought, did not follow the same totalitarian pathway as China.
  • The Celestial and his religions : or, The religious aspect in China

    Ball, J. Dyer (James Dyer), 1847-1919 (Hongkong: Kelly and Walsh, ld.Princeton Theological Seminary, 1906)
  • Confucian relationism and global ethics

    Rošker, Jana S (Leiden ; Boston : Brill,, 2023-05-01)
    Environmental disasters, unequal distribution of resources, viral pandemics, and other types of trans-national disasters, are global crises that cannot be solved within the narrow framework of individual nation-states. They must be addressed through global cooperation and solidarity. Such strategies require intercultural dialog that goes beyond fashionable slogans and can lead to a truly equal exchange of knowledge and ideas. Towards this endeavour, this book by Jana S. Rošker focuses on the traditional Confucian ethic of relationism, which historically spread throughout many regions of East Asia. She examines the specific features of relational ethics and explores its possible contribution to the new global ethics.
  • Klasikinės kinų ir Vakarų estetikos lyginimo problemos

    Poškaitė, Loreta (2016)
    Viena svarbiausių kliūčių ir netikslumų lyginamuosiuose tyrimuose, kai gvildenami kinų ir Vakarų estetikos panašumai ir skirtumai, straipsnio autorė laiko perdėm apibendrinamojo pobūdžio požiūrius į abi tradicijas. Todėl šiame straipsnyje siekiama nurodyti ir kritiškai įvertinti svarbiausius tokio apibendrinto požiūrio pavyzdžius, įvardyti su jais susijusias klasikinės Vakarų ir kinų estetikos tradicijų lyginimo problemas. Tad pirmiausia bus aptariami svarbiausi kinų ir Vakarų klasikinės estetikos „naratyvai“, jų santykio traktavimas kai kurių sinologų darbuose ir šių naratyvų ištakos abiejų kultūrų filosofinėse pasaulėžiūrose. Bus gvildenama šių filosofinių pasaulėžiūrų įtaka meninės tikrovės traktavimui kinų ir Vakarų meno teorijose bei estetikoje.
  • Žmogaus talento (cai) samprata tradicinėje kinų kultūroje ir komparatyvistinės jo studijų perspektyvos

    Poškaitė, Loreta (2006)
    The article analyses the concept of talent (cai) in the early traditional Chinese culture and philosophy. In addition to it, the political-cultural importance is also revealed. The Chinese category of talent is very specific; there was almost no analogues in the Western world. The aspects of cai are named and analysed. They show that a person was percepted not as a specific and absolute value, but as a typical whole of powers, integrated into the hierarchical structure of talents.
  • Kinų estetiškumo samprata ir vaizduojamosios dailės traktatų savitumas

    Andrijauskas, Antanas (2014)
    Straipsnyje įvairiais aspektais tyrinėjami specifiniai tradicinės kinų estetikos bruožai, jai būdingos estetiškumo sampratos ypatumai. Daugiausia dėmesio skiriama kinų estetiškumo sampratos ištakoms mitinėje pasaulėžiūroje, detaliai analizuojamos estetiškumo sampratos metamorfozės klasikinio konfucianizmo, daoizmo ir čan mąstytojų veikaluose. Glaustai apibūdinami specifiniai visų pagrindinių kinų estetikos krypčių atstovų požiūriai į estetiškumo prigimtį ir pamatines meno pažinimo problemas. Atskleidžiami teoriniai ir metodologiniai filosofinės ir menotyrinės estetikos požiūrių į meno reiškinius skirtumai. Išryškinamas menotyrinės estetikos koncepcijų ryšys su aktualiais meno praktikos teorinio apmąstymo poreikiais. Lyginamosios analizės pagrindu atskleidžiamas kinų vaizduojamosios dailės kaligrafijos ir tapybos traktatų savitumas, jų specifiniai tipologiniai bruožai, prioritetinių problemų laukai.
  • Alternatyva individualizmui: sąryšinio žmogaus samprata konfucinėje vaidmenų etikoje

    Silius, Vytis (2021)
    Straipsnyje siūloma į konfucinę vaidmenų etiką žiūrėti kaip į savarankišką filosofinę poziciją, kur formuluojami metaetiniai ir metafilosofiniai teiginiai apie etikos prigimtį ir žmogaus sampratą, neapsiribojant jos lyginamuoju darbu interpretuojant klasikinio konfucianizmo etikos pobūdį. Pasiūlomas tinkamesnis kontekstas konfucinės vaidmenų etikos pagrindinėms idėjoms įvertinti – tai vienos filosofinės tradicijos ar kultūros, taip pat ir vienos akademinės disciplinos ribas peržengianti diskusija, vienijanti individualizmo kritikus, ieškančius alternatyvos individualistinei žmogaus sampratai. Konfucinės vaidmenų etikos pasiūloma sąryšinio asmens kaip sudaryto iš visų jo gyvenamų vaidmenų samprata diskutuojama išskleidžiant dviejų kertinių tokios sampratos sąvokų – sąryšių ir vaidmenų – specifiškumą. Straipsnyje teigiama, jog gilesnė ir išsamesnė iš specifinių ir konkrečių žmogaus gyvenamų vaidmenų bei jais struktūruotų sąryšių kylančio normatyvumo analizė yra reikalingiausia ir perspektyviausia tolesnės vaidmenų etikos plėtojimo kryptis.
  • A Brief Analysis of Contemporary Confucianism's Research on Feminine Topics

    Pan, Jingzhi (Chapman University Digital Commons, 2023-05-04)
    Although Confucianism has been recognized as a world religion for more than a hundred years today, recent research, which studies it as a religion, still seems numbed to or ignores day-to-day feminine topics like sexual crimes, domestic violence, male patronize, and even gendered religious value itself. More often, even if they announce they are studying the religion, people study Confucianism as a philosophy, an ethic, a phenomenon, a political strategy…everything else but a religion with transcendent values like other world religions. This essay will overview the research of contemporary Confucian feminine topics and analyze and argue their utilities in helping Confucian women.
  • Confucianism and the Legalism: A Model of the National Strategy of Governance in Ancient China

    Zhou, Haiwen (ODU Digital Commons, 2011-01-01)
    The Confucian school emphasizes family value, moral persuasions, and personal relations. Under Confucianism, there is a free-rider issue in the provision of efforts. Since national officials are chosen through personal relations, they may not be the most capable. The Legalist school emphasizes the usage of incentives and formal institutions. Under the Legalism, the ruler provides strong incentives to local officials which may lead to side effects because some activities are noncontractible. The cold-blood image of the Legalism may alien citizens. By exploiting the paternalistic relationship between the ruler and the ruled under Confucianism and the strength of institution-building under the Legalism, the ruler may benefit from a combination of Confucianism approach and the Legalism approach as the national strategy of governance. As each strategy has its pros and cons, which strategy of is optimal depends on factors such as the minimum enforceable level of public service and the level of institution building costs.
  • On two sides of a clear stream: gender-based differences in the awareness of spatial design in the Humble Administrator’s Garden in the 18th and 19th centuries

    Jiayan Yun; Zhiyu Chen (Taylor & Francis Group, 2023-04-01)
    This study compares the gender-differentiated awareness of the spatial design of the semi-public Humble Administrator’s Garden in the 18th–19th centuries. It found that men visiting the garden would mostly recall Wen Zhengming’s painting of the garden from the previous dynasty and gradually process from the boundary scenes to the core scene, highlighting the idea of following tradition; women would start from the core scene and then radiate to the boundary scenes in a rather modern and practical way. When living in the garden, men would only recognize the main scenes, while women would recognize the main scenes and the bridges, corridors and steps connecting the main scenes as a metaphor for the release of spatial confinement. The pond divides the garden into a male space on the south bank and a female space on the north bank. The two banks of the pond, which was designed to be in the relationship of seeing and being seen, became a confrontation between the new concept of modernity and older social conventions, thus reflecting the reconstruction of the socio-cultural connotations of spatial design for gardens during the tug of war between the maintenance and dissolution of Confucian ethics in the late feudal empire.

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