Confucianism is one of the great ethical and philosophical systems in the world, based on the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius (551-479 BC). This Confucian Ethics collection includes works of Confucius, Confucian classics like the disciple Mencius, and mainly contemporary articles on Confucian applied ethics such as education ethics, political ethics, business ethics. - 儒家思想以中国哲学家孔子(公元前551-479 年)的言传身教为基础,是世界上最伟大的伦理和哲学体系之一。该收藏文集包括了孔子的著作,孔子门徒孟子的著作等儒家经典学说,以及当代儒家应用伦理,如家庭伦理、政治伦理和商业伦理等方面的文章。本收藏还在建设初期,更多文档在不断添加中

Recent Submissions

  • Humaneness and family values in transcultural perspective

    Sernelj, Tea (Institute of Oriental Studies of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava, 2022-05-31)
    The topical processes of modern identity-making within Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) on the one hand, and China on the other, are fundamentally results of different forms of cultural and economic transformation, conflict and harmonious social adjustment. The aim of the present article is to show the need to appreciate the role of culture not only as a background to, but also as a constitutive part of, economic dynamics. Thus, it assumes that any comparative analysis of the rise of transitional societies must deal with questions connected to respective value systems, i.e. issues of moral education, political authority, social solidarity, and religious beliefs. It is not coincidental that the rapid recent development of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) owes much to such crucial traditional virtues as social hierarchy, self-discipline, social harmony, strong families and a respect for education. In this context, the present article examines the revival of the Confucian tradition in China. According to previous research results, traditional East European values were in many aspects closer to such virtues then traditional Western values that have been mainly focused upon the idea of individual autonomy. Hence, this study examines the hypothesis that the Central and Eastern European area could function as a cultural and axiological bridge between China and Europe.
  • Visualising the historical development and belief system of confucianism

    Augustine Owusu-Addo (2022-04-30)
    The main aim of this paper is to visualize the historical development and the belief system of Confucianism. Confucianism is a term used in Western literature as the name for the philosophy and religion based on the teachings of its founder Confucius.). Confucius believed that political order can be restored if the ideals, standards, and rites found in the ancient classics were put into practice. This practice developed from an ethico-political system of a paternal government based on the doctrine of humaneness. Confucianism has also spread well beyond China, and its principles and values are highly honoured in East Asian countries such as Japan, Korea, and Vietnam (Morgan 2001). The adoption of Confucianism as the official state ideology made Confucian learning the only legitimate content of state education during the Han dynasty. Confucianism has sometimes been purely humanistic, void of any religious elements. While it is true that Confucius did not dwell much into the religious dimension, there is sufficient inferences in his writings that points to this dimension. The basic tenets of Confucianism are captured in the teachings of Confucius which deal with social and moral values. The texts of Confucianism are traditionally known as the “Four Books and Five Classics”. One common practice derived from of this religion is ancestral worship. This is probably the most recognisable influence of Confucius on Chinese culture. The last section of this review takes a comparative look at Confucianism and Christianity. It points out gaps and the bridges that’s between Christians and Confucianism and how interreligious dialogues and the preaching of the gospel relates to Confucian teachings.
  • Two models of Confucian democracy

    Rošker, Jana S. (Taylor & Frances, 2022-06-03)
    In the final decades of the 20th century, the majority of modern Sinophone scholars believed that Confucianism was an outdated and obsolete ideology that was not only unsuitable for the development of modern science and democratic societies, but also responsible for the deep social and political crisis that had branded China for the previous two centuries. Modern New Confucians, however, never assumed that the Confucian system was responsible for such a situation. Most of them believed that Confucianism was compatible with science and democracy. Moreover, the majority of them assumed that the East Asian cultures would never be able to develop truly democratic structures of their societies unless they incorporated the appropriate elements of their own, i.e. Confucian, traditions. This paper critically analyses the theoretical models of Tang Junyi and Mou Zongsan on the possible revival and development of Confucian proto-democracies.
  • A Study of the History of Chinese Philosophy in Independent Ukraine: The Sinological Experience of Kyiv Universities in the Late 20th and Early 21st Centuries (Part 2)

    Heorhii Vdovychenko (International Society of Philosophy and Cosmology, 2022-05-01)
    This paper continues observing the main achievements of studies on the history of philosophical education, science and culture of China in the universities of the capital of independent Ukraine since its proclamation in 1991 and to this day. In 2021, we celebrated the 30th anniversary of our Motherland’s difficult but irreversible return to the circle of famous world powers as a historical descendant of UkraineRus as a known co-creator of European civilization. This jubilee coincided with the 30th anniversary of Ukraine’s development of the vector of its geopolitical partnership in the Asia-Pacific, primarily with the People’s Republic of China. As evidenced by the results of this cooperation in education and science, considered in the first paper of this series, not only many Ukrainian academic institutions, first of all, the A. Yu. Krymskyi Institute of Oriental Studies of the NAS of Ukraine and the H. S. Skovoroda Institute of Philosophy of the NAS of Ukraine played the main role in the growth of modern domestic, in particular philosophical, Chinese studies. As it turned out, this role is also performed by a number of Kyiv universities, f.e. Sinologists of the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, such as V. Sednev, S. Kostenko, N. Kirnosova, Y. Shekera, G. Bokal, O. Boichenko, V. Urusov, S. Rudenko, etc. Like their colleagues from other Kyiv universities, namely: the National University of “Kyiv-Mohyla Academy”(NaUKMA), Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University, Kyiv National Linguistic University, Vadym Hetman Kyiv National Economic University, – they jointly made a significant contribution to the study of Chinese philosophical thought. It is noteworthy that this progress was obtained as a result of their active teamwork with the Sinological Centers of the said academic institutes, the Ukrainian Association of Sinologists, Chinese studies hotbeds of each other, and other Ukrainian universities and Chinese colleagues. This paper deals with the general analysis of the study, mainly of the history of Taoism, Confucianism and Chinese Buddhism, in these five universities of the capital of Ukraine, primarily in the Center for Oriental Studies the second one of them, the Confucius School of the third and the Sinological subdivisions of the fourth, as well as in the group of Sinological centres of universities in other regions of Ukraine.
  • Case Study Research in Kenya and South Korea: Reflexivity and Ethical Dilemmas

    Nissen, Aleydis (MISC, 2022-06-13)
    Reflexivity increases the reliability of qualitative research studies and can fuel conversations as to how field researchers make judgments of complex challenges that are simultaneous of a practical, scientific and ethical nature. In this paper, I will reflect on the collection of empirical data for two case studies on the role of the European Union in the regulation and remediation of labour rights violations in the Kenyan floriculture industry and the South Korean electronics industry. This paper has two intertwined objectives. First, this paper explores reflexivity on my research experience and the use of methods in empirical fieldwork. Second, this paper questions the Anglo-American elements of my research, which had been reinforced by my School's Research Ethics Committee. I explain how the contexts of research institutions and research participants can starkly differ and may not always be attuned to each other. I suggest that awareness of and training in "positive ethics" might be useful to deal with such issues.
  • Culturally responsive evaluation: A theoretical approach relevant to South East and East Asia and guiding principles for Vietnam

    Dinh, Kathryn (UNSW, Sydney, 2020)
    Culturally responsive evaluation contests the belief in the universalism of Western-derived evaluation methods, but an identified challenge has been to modify or create new evaluation methods that are grounded in diverse, non-Western European contexts. While there have been significant advances in culturally responsive evaluation that reflect Indigenous ways of knowing, the literature on evaluation methods that are derived from South East and East Asian world views is particularly limited. In this thesis, I propose guiding principles for conducting HIV policy advocacy evaluations in Vietnam so that they are context-sensitive. I adopt a qualitative, inductive approach to explore the theory and values underpinning contemporary advocacy evaluation methods, influences on advocacy practice in Vietnam, how to incorporate diverse world views into evaluation methods, and how to identify guiding principles for adapting evaluation methods to the Vietnamese context. I conduct semi-structured interviews with diverse stakeholders from the HIV sector in Vietnam to understand influences on advocacy practice, with the expectation that this will provide the necessary data for drafting the guiding principles. I then identify that a theoretical understanding of how methods could be modified to incorporate diverse world views is needed. I subsequently conduct a theoretical analysis of world views underpinning two evaluation methods, contribution analysis and Most Significant Change technique, and their degree of congruence with the teachings of Confucius and Buddha. This results in the development of a proposed new evaluation method – later called the World View Method. I use a case study approach to apply aspects of the earlier theoretical analysis into the draft guiding principles for civil society HIV policy advocacy evaluation in Vietnam. These are tested for accuracy, relevance and appropriateness and validated using semi-structured stakeholder interviews. In this thesis, I demonstrate that it is possible to modify contribution analysis, a method commonly used in advocacy evaluation, to incorporate Confucian teachings. I use the same approach to modify a second method, the Most Significant Change technique, to consider Buddhist teachings. The research addresses a key challenge identified in culturally responsive evaluation by exploring a new process – the World View Method – suitable for developing bespoke evaluation methods that are responsive to the local cultural, historic, economic, religious and political influences that shape the context being evaluated. In the thesis, I then develop guiding principles for evaluators of civil society HIV policy advocacy in Vietnam as an example of a tool that could be used to assist evaluators in implementing the early steps in the World View Method. The guiding principles needed to be sufficiently detailed to capture the complexity and nuance of influences on advocacy practice in order for them to be useful for evaluators and to inform culturally responsive evaluation design and implementation.
  • The Nine Cloud Dream: A Deep Analysis

    Cruz-Morales, Ajah (ScholarWorks@CWU, 2022-05-19)
    For my presentation, I will be analyzing what is considered the greatest classic novel out of Korea, The Nine Cloud Dream by Kim Man-Jung (1637-1692). Following the journey of a monk, he will come across 8 fairy maidens, each representing some sort of temptation, he then undergoes an unusual punishment of reincarnation into the most ideal man. This is a punishment for his doubting Buddha’s teachings. I will uncover the meaning behind each fairy maiden’s purpose in this monk’s journey and relate these experiences to his final enlightenment to comprehending the fundamental teachings of Buddha while also tying in a bit of Confucius’ teachings, which is a large part of Kim Man-Jung’s expertise, more specifically neo-Confucianism, as this is the form of Confucian teachings followed in Korea. Another aspect to the book I will cover would be political, considering this book is during the Joseon Dynasty under the reign of King Suk Jong. Getting an understanding of the politics at this time, as well as the religious factors previously mentioned, will show Korea in one of its earlier days, allowing me to make comparisons between past and present Korea (South).
  • Asia Pacific Perspectives Vol. 2 No. 1, February 2002

    Roddy, Stephen J.; Sharma, Shalendra (USF Scholarship: a digital repository @ Gleeson Library | Geschke Center, 2022-03-24)
    Exploring Korean Values by Steven R. Brown and Byung-Ok Kil The contours of the Korean value system are examined both extensively and through an intensive single-case study in which a representative personality is invited to appraise a set of historical figures under various conditions of instruction focused on Confucian and other values. The Q sample is comprised of the names of 50 historical and contemporary figures (e.g., Kim Ok-Gyun, assassinated reformer of the late Yi dynasty; Chun Bong-Joon, religious leader associated with peasant revolts in the late 19th century; Lee Hwang, 15th century Confucian scholar, et al.). Initially, 25 Korean students Q sorted the 50 names from appealing to unappealing, producing two factors. Intensive studies involved Q-sort appraisals in terms of values such as In (Chinese Jen, humanity, virtuousness), Eui (Chinese Yi, righteousness and sense of duty), Yea (Chinese Li, propriety), and others. Discussion considers sources of stability and change in Korean values. Transnationalization of Faith: The Americanization of Christianity in the Philippines and the Filipinization of Christianity in the United States by Joaquin L. Gonzalez III The historical coverage of bilateral relations between the Philippines and the United States has always been stacked in favor of the latter. For decades, scholars have written about America’s impact on Philippine society, government, economics, and culture. However, the mass migration of Filipinos globally, and in particular to the United States, has turned the focus of attention to the growing influence and contributions of the former to American society. This article moves from a one-sided bilateral view of relations between the two states to a more two-way, transnational perspective. An interesting area that has emerged is religion, since Filipino immigrants not only bring with them their political ideals and economic quest but their deep faith. It argues that the Spanish and American Christianization of the Philippines also precipitated a Filipinization of American Christian churches, especially in California, which is the adopted home of close to a million Filipino immigrants. Complementary Role of the Rohri Hills and the Thar Desert in the Development of Indus Valley Civilization: New Research by Qasid H. Mallah, Nilofer Shaikh, and G.M. Veesar The archaeological research on the lndus Valley Civilization (3000 B.C-1500 B.C.) has contributed much to the understanding of this highly-complex civilization. However, the conventional view that the civilization flourished mainly on the banks of the Indus river has been increasingly challenged. This paper provides original data to show that geographical regions once considered inhospitable to the growth and extension of the Indus Valley civilization (namely the Rohri Hills and the Thar Desert), were in fact quite conducive to human settlement. To make our case we provide a significant set of empirical data collected during our archaeological fieldwork from the Thar, Rohri Hills and its adjacent areas to give a fuller vision of historical culture developments from the Palaeolithic to the lndus period. A New Era of International Trade: A Study of Asian, North American, and Latin American Regional Associations by Rolf Màrio Treuherz The need to achieve competitive advantage in foreign trade operations has led both developed and developing countries to join forces. A new balance of power was generated by the formation of regional associations in the global marketplace. This trend brought about a new era in the field of international relations, as a direct consequence of liberalization of trade and capital flows impelled by globalization. In this context, where disputes among nations can become endless, it is easy to understand the growing importance of the WTO (World Trade Organization) as a ruler and mediator. On the other hand, forming an opinion about possible consequences of this new order upon world trade, involves a thorough comprehension of the objectives and forms of organization of the existing trade agreements.
  • Confucianism and Taouism /

    Douglas, Robert Kennaway, Sir, 1838-1913.; Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge (Great Britain). General Literature Committee. (London : Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge ; New York : E. & J.B. Young,, [1877])
    Published under the direction of the Committee of General Literature and Education appointed by the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
  • The religion of the Chinese

    Cornell University Library; Groot, J. J. M. de (Jan Jakob Maria), 1854-1921 (New York, The Macmillan company, 1910-01-01)
    The metadata below describe the original scanning. Follow the "All Files: HTTP" link in the "View the book" box to the left to find XML files that contain more metadata about the original images and the derived formats (OCR results, PDF etc.). See also the What is the directory structure for the texts? FAQ for information about file content and naming conventions.
  • The Buddhist Interpretation of the Confucianist Concept of Family

    Hamar Imre (2021)
    A szülőtisztelet az egyik fő morális érték a konfuciánus tanításban, amely a kínai társadalmi értékrendszer alappillérévé vált, amennyiben leírja és előírja az emberi közösségek megfelelő működését mikro- (családi) és makro- (állami) szinten. A buddhizmus megjelenése, amely tanítás azt hirdeti, hogy a legfőbb igazságot csak azok érhetik el könnyűszerrel, akik cölibátusba vonulva szerzetesi életpályára lépnek, kihívás elé állította a konfucianizmus általánosan elfogadott morális kötelmeit, és párbeszédet, esetenként vitát indított a kínai írástudókkal a buddhista és a konfuciánus etika különbségeiről és hasonlóságairól. A jelen tanulmány abba nyújt bepillantást, hogyan igyekeztek bizonyítani a buddhizmus kínai értelmezői nemcsak azt, hogy a szülőtisztelet a buddhizmus minden gyakorlója számára követelményt jelent, mintegy bebocsátásként abba a társadalmi közegbe, amelyben a szülőtisztelet az erényes emberi létezést reprezentálja, hanem a szülőtiszteletről szóló indiai szövegek hamisítása, valamint indiai iratok képi megjelenítése és kommentálása révén azt is , hogy a szülőtisztelet a buddhista gyakorlat meghatározó eleme.
  • Motisták és konfuciánusok vitatémái az ókori Kínában II.

    Kósa, Gábor (2021)
    A kínai filozófiatörténetben közismert ténynek számít, hogy az i. e. 5–4. században a konfuciánusok és a motisták szemben álltak egymással. A két irányzat képviselőinek disputáiról összesen három típusú forrás tudósít bennünket: 1. A külső források, amelyek a két irányzat vitáiról külső szemlélőként tudósítanak. 2. A konfuciánus források, amelyek leginkább a motizmussal szembeni konfuciánus kritikákat tartalmazzák; 3. A motista források, amelyek pedig elsősorban a konfuciánus nézetek motista kritikáit részletezik. Ezen tanulmány előzményében az első és a második kategóriát vizsgáltam, jelen tanulmányban pedig a harmadik csoportra fókuszálok.
  • Investigating the Similarities and Differences of Utopia in Zoroastrianism and Confucianism

    Sayyed Saed Reza Montazeri; Narges Khandel (University of Isfahan, 2021-12-01)
    Extended Abstract Zoroaster was born in an era that Iran was experiencing political and social unrest. He brought a new religion based on several thousand years of history of thought and wisdom in ancient Iran. As he mentions in the Gathas, the new religion created immense changes in the Iranian society. He says in the Gathas that his goal is to build a new utopian ruling and social system that guarantees welfare and prosperity. The political thoughts of Zoroaster are intertwined with his religious ideology and the utopia he pictures is an earthy replication of the Minavi utopia ruled by Ahura Mazda. The utopian  rules are based on wisdom and his power is legitimized by Amshasepand Shahrivar. The outcome of such a ruling is a world of order. Confucius was also born during an era of chaos and bloodshed caused by civil wars. The Chinese society of that era was struggling with war, poverty, corruption, and insecurity. By studying the golden age of mythology of ancient China, Confucius introduced a moral-political system for the Chinese society. He believes that utopia becomes possible when virtues become the foundations of ruling and society. He argues that virtues are attainable through educating moral role models, respecting the principle of Lee or social system goal and the law of titles reform or creating order in the principles of sovereignty, placing everyone in their rightful position, and choosing a wise ruler for society. The Zoroastrian and Confucian utopias are both affected by the Orient political thought. They both emphasize concepts like Asha and Ming (i.e. global order and harmony), training and educating rules, and institutionalizing virtues in society. Zoroaster and Confucius both preached about comprehensive political and social reforms and both tried to achieve a world with an order. The present study is an attempt to investigate the utopia in Zoroaster and Confucius religions following an analytical and theoretical approach through  library and descriptive methods. The main objective is to examine the concept of utopia and its elements from Zoroaster and Confucius’ viewpoints and find the common aspects and differences. The main questions to be asked are: 1) what is the source of the idea of utopia in Zoroastrianism and Confucianism?; 2)  what are the differences and similarities of these two utopias? The source of Zoroastrian utopia is in Minavi and all affairs of the utopia are explained based on the Minavi world and creatures. AS such, the specifications of the Minavi world are combined with earthy and Gitavi life. He develops an extensive moral system for his followers based on good thoughts, good words, and good deeds. On the other hand, Confucian utopia is earthy and all its affairs are explained based on human and man’s attention to humanistic behavior, charity, and performing rituals. This moral system is based on Zen and charity. Both of these utopias start with making internal changes in man and both are attainable gradually. The universe order has a special position in the moral systems of Zoroaster and Confucius. Asha in Zoroastrianism and Ming in Confucianism are the keys to achieve utopia. They both put emphasis on educating rulers and citizens. Zoroaster and Confucius believe that the ruler must be wise and knowledgeable to create peace and welfare in the society. They argue that the ruler must be just and define justice as placing everyone in their proper place to fulfill their responsibilities. Justice in Confucianism appears as title reforms while in Zoroastrianism, it appears as the preservation of social classes. The relationship between the ruler and people in Confucianism is a cycle in such a way that people affect the state, and the state affects people. In Zoroastrianism, on the other hand, there is a linear relationship between people and state and it is the state’s responsibility to affect people. Punishment and enforcement of the law are not desirable in Confucianism as Confucius believes that virtues must be institutionalized in people and the shame felt by a wrongdoer should be enough to prevent others from doing the same mistake. In Zoroastrianism, we see punishment so that people feel the responsibility to  be accountable. Zoroastrianism and Confucianism are different in terms of the roots of their utopias. Still, both define an extensive ethical system. The outcome of such a system is the same:  the society is supposed to be led towards prosperity, welfare, security, and peace.
  • Ames, Roger. Confucian Role Ethics: A Vocabulary

    Barrera Rubio, Sara (Universidad Nacional de Colombia - Sede Bogotá - Facultad de Ciencias Humanas - Departamento de Filosofía, 2019-07-03)
    Ames, Roger. Confucian Role Ethics: A Vocabulary. Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2011. 332 pp.
  • Reliģiski-filozofiski raksti, Speciālizlaidums I

    Kļaviņš, Kaspars; Jung Ran Park; Shvets, Svitlana; Pak, Antonina; Tsoy, Inna; Guryeva, Anastasia; Baltgalve, Agita; Haijima, Agnese; Šķestere, Ildze; Lāms, Ojārs (LU Filozofijas un socioloģijas institūts, 2022-05-27)
    A special issue, “Remembering the Past and the Future - Korean Culture in a Changing World,” is devoted to understanding Korean culture. Regardless of the bulk of comprehensive information available today, accurate knowledge of the Asian culture in Europe or the European culture in Asia has not become considerably deeper. Sometimes even to the contrary – the old stereotypes continue to exist as part of the packaging for pseudo information adjusted to the short-term goals of the contemporary globalised society, supplemented by travel guides and announcements tailored to the needs of immediate politically economic conjuncture. And yet, this is only the top of the intercultural communication iceberg. The articles published in this issue reveal the complexity of Korean culture in history and nowadays.
  • The role of confucianism in education of the Nguyen dynasty in Vietnam in the first half of the 19th century

    Pham Thi Lan (Universidade Estadual Paulista, 2022-03-01)
    Education in the Nguyen dynasty is an expression of the general cultural function of Confucian doctrine. The Three Character Classic says: "Jade that has not been polished cannot be used. Person that has not studied cannot know righteousness".  Confucius was the first private educator in ancient China to open a school with the spirit of "teaching tirelessly" in order to train knowledgeable and pioneering people to establish social order and build the ideal social model. As a result, the education system has been increasingly improved, and the rather strict academic examinations have successfully selected many talents worthy of being "the vitality of the nation". This article focuses on discussing the role of Confucianism in moral education and academic education which has both theoretical and practical significance in today's context, and thus requires to be shed light on in the new historical conditions contribute to the cause of education in Vietnam.
  • Confucianism in Context Classic Philosophy and Contemporary Issues, East Asia and Beyond

    Chang, Wonsuk.; Kalmanson, Leah.
    A wide-ranging consideration of Confucianism for Western readers.
  • Confucius for Christians What an Ancient Chinese Worldview Can Teach Us about Life in Christ

    Ten Elshof, Gregg A.
    Intro -- Acknowledgments -- 1. Confucian Christianity? -- 2. Family -- 3. Learning -- 4. Ethics -- 5. Ritual -- 6. Sam
  • “Cutting Up a Chicken with a Cow-Cleaver” : Confucianism as a Religion in Japan’s Courts of Law

    Larsson, Ernils (Uppsala universitet, Teologiska institutionenUppsala universitet, Centrum för forskning om religion och samhälle (CRS)Basel, Switzerland : MDPI AG, 2022)
    This paper explores the Naha Confucius Temple case, resolved by the Supreme Court in February 2021, in light of postwar decisions on Articles 20 and 89 of the Japanese constitution. Religion is a contested category in Japanese legislation, appearing both in the constitution and in laws regulating the freedoms and restrictions of legally registered religious organizations. While the organization behind the Confucius Temple in Naha was registered as a general corporate juridical person, the majority opinion sided with the plaintiffs’ argument that the free lease granted to the temple by the municipality of Naha constituted a violence of the ban on public sponsorship of religious institutions and activities. In order to reach their decision, the Supreme Court and the lower courts not only had to decide on whether Confucianism was a religion or not, but also on whether the organization behind the temple—a group dedicated to the history and memory of the Chinese immigrant community in Naha—should in fact be considered a religious organization. The outcome of the case is a good example of religion-making in courts of law, with a central institution of power employing notions of sui generis religion to regulate and define civil actors.
  • Looking for the "Vulnerable Subject": The Mencian Account of the Person

    CONSIGLIO E (Il Mulinocountry:IT, 2019)
    The idea of the legal subject as an autonomous agent, with the capacity to choose and freely determine herself without external constraints or interference, complete in herself and independent, has had remarkable normative implications in structuring contemporary legal systems. The philosopher Martha Fineman recently argued against this notion, proposing the alternative one of “vulnerable subject.” This paper suggests that the notion of the person elaborated by the classical Confucian thinkers encompasses the “vulnerable subject.” The Confucian theorizations resonate with the ethic of care; however, their moral and normative relevance carries the potential for a broader scope of application, beyond the relation of care. Following a short introduction aimed at sketching the main arguments of the feminist and Marxist critique of the liberal subject, in the first part of my paper, I will illustrate the Confucian framework, and in the second part I will show how the Confucian understanding of personhood can be profitably used, testing it with the case study of persons trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation.

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