• 101 Questions and answers on Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto

      Internet Archive; Renard, John, 1944- (New York : Paulist Press, 2002-01-01)
      xii, 243 pages : 21 cm
    • 1950-1960年代離散中華人基督徒身份的建構: 以謝扶雅(1892-1991)為個案研究.

      何慶昌.; Chinese University of Hong Kong Graduate School. Division of Religious Studies.; He, Qingchang. (2006)
      Furthermore, the present research is going to indicate that many historians and theologians have failed to take serious the diasporic context when articulating their concepts of traditional Chinese culture and of the Chinese identity. In fact, Xie Fuya, as a diasporic Chinese after 1949, did not define his Chinese identity and the Chinese culture in territorial or political terms. Instead, he shared the viewpoints of those overseas Chinese who were struggling to survive in diasporic contexts. And his diasporic experience and horizon generated a critical understanding of Chinese culture and indigenous theology as well as their relationship. Even now, some scholars in Mainland China continue to emphasize that indigenous theology should be understood, discussed and applied within the social, political and cultural contexts of Mainland China only. However, their understandings of Chinese culture and Chinese identity, as well as the related methodology of indigenous theology they have employed, need to be examined critically.
    • ***2013 Bayan - Maulana Anzar Shah Qasmi

      Maulana Anzar Shah Qasmi (2013-12-13)
      2013 Bayan Of Maulana Syed Anzar Shah Qasmi Moulana Anzar Shah is a alim from Deoband and he is presently an Imam in Noorani Masjid in Bangalore. He gives very Impressive lectures, straight to the point, current affairs and many more. Till now he has never compromised with any of the Islamic boundaries of Halaal and Haraam and we pray that Insha Allah he remains the same. The only objection people have against him is that the uses foul language to the munafiqeen and kuffar for which he has his own proofs. Ae Aashiqe Rasool.mp3 Ae Musalma Tu Hi Buland He Bombay.mp3 Agar Aman Chahte Ho.mp3 Ahle Bait 22.11.13.mp3 Allah Ke Darbar Me 26.12.13.mp3 Aourat Khairoshar Ka Remote Control.mp3 Aulaad Ya Azaab - (V1-V3).mp3 Aulaad Ya Azaab - (V2-V3).mp3 Aulaad Ya Azaab - (V3-V3).mp3 Aurat Ki Ismat Gari Ka Ilaaj.mp3 Azmate Ramzan.mp3 Bahimmat Musalman 05.11.13.mp3 Basheero Nazeer.mp3 Bazme Qasmi.mp3 Binte Hawa Pareshan 13-12-2013.mp3 Eid Mubarak.mp3 Eidul Azha 16.10.13.mp3 Hamaari Islaah.mp3 Hamaari Taraqqi Ka Raaz Bengal 30-11-2013.mp3 Hamari Jeet.mp3 Happy New Year 8.11.13.mp3 Haqqo Baatil Ki Jang Me Ulamae Su.mp3 Hum Kitne Musalman Kitne Munafiq 27.12.2013.mp3 Hum Sarbuland Nagpur 08-12-2013.mp3 Husoole Insaaf Conference.mp3 Ilme Dunya To Ho Tehzeebe Aghyaar Na Ho.mp3 Islam Amano Salamti.mp3 Islam Ka Ghar.mp3 Jaag Jaye Ye Musalman To Sawera Hoga.mp3 Jaib Bharu Peer Pait Bharo Molvi.mp3 Jalsae Anwaarul Uloom.mp3 Jamaat Parasti 19-12-2013.mp3 Jange Aazaadi Aur Musalmaan.mp3 Jumma Ki Ahmiyat.mp3 Jummatul Wida.mp3 Kanjoos Munafiq 1.11.13.mp3 Karbala 15.11.13.mp3 Khanae Kaaba.mp3 Khudko Pehchaan.mp3 Madrasa Akkal Khuwan (V1-V2) 24.11.13.mp3 Madrasa Akkal Khuwan (V2-V2) 24.11.13.mp3 Maqaame Ummat 17.11.13.mp3 Masjid Ka Shikwa.mp3 Maslake Haq.mp3 Maslaki Jhagde.mp3 Masturat Me Bayan (Nagina).mp3 Masturat Me Bayan.mp3 Mayoos Na Ho 23.11.13.mp3 Mere Rasool Ka Jo Bhi Ghulaam.mp3 Misser Me Aaj Ka Firoun.mp3 Modern Mujtahid Ka Khatra 20.12.13.mp3 Momin Aur Musalman 28.1113.mp3 Mulk Ke Wafadar.mp3 Musalmanon Ke Jalse 22.10.2013.mp3 Musalmanon Ke Liye Nemat.mp3 Quran Ki Taqat.mp3 Quran Se Be Rukhi.mp3 Qurbaani Ke Baad 18.10.13.mp3 Qurbaani Ki Rooh 11.10.13.mp3 Ramzaan Ka Badnaseeb.mp3 Ramzan Kiya He.mp3 Shabbe Barat.mp3 Tableeghi Bhaiyon Se Khitaab.mp3 Tehreeke Lashkare Ilyaasi Ka Maqsad 12-12-2013.mp3 Ummate Wasat.mp3 Warise Nabi Ki Zimedaari.mp3 Zakaath.mp3 Zamana Tera Muntazir He Ooti 29-12-2013.mp3 Zindagi Me Khushi Kese Layen 29.11.13.mp3 Zindagi Me Sukoon Lane Ka Formula 6-12-13.mp3 Aamade Ramzan.mp3 Aashiqe Rasool (SAW).mp3 one can find all his lectures on his site www.ittaqullah.com He is a man whose life is full of taqwa and pain of ummat specially the people of Palestine,Kashmir, Afghanistan and many more. But there are some people who don't look at this starting thinking in a negative manner.
    • "Being Chinese" in Madagascar

      Zhang, Mingyuan (Scholarship@Western, 2018-10-04)
      This PhD dissertation explores how the meaning of “being Chinese” is culturally and socially constructed in northern Madagascar, focusing on identity-shaping encounters between Mandarin-speaking Chinese and Malagasy people in three particular contexts: 1) a sugar plantation managed by a Chinese stated-owned corporation; 2) networks of Chinese and Malagasy private businessmen who enable the movement of cheap Chinese commodities from Guangzhou, China to northern Madagascar; and 3) the classrooms of the Confucius Institute - a worldwide educational project sponsored by the Chinese government aiming to promote Chinese language and culture. The dissertation provides an ethnographic account of Chinese-Malagasy encounters by discussing a number of prominent themes: the perceived homogeneity and actual heterogeneity of Chinese people in Madagascar, the influence of particular constructions of gender on intimate relationships between Chinese and Malagasy people, Chinese-Malagasy encounters mediated by global commodity chains and the selective representation of Chinese culture in the classes and events sponsored by the Confucius Institute. By juxtaposing the three contexts, this dissertation strives to bridge the growing literature on China-Africa encounters with broader discussions of Africa in the postcolonial world that has long been dominated by the dual protagonists of the “West” and Africa. The main argument is that all three contexts of Chinese-Malagasy encounters demonstrate the features of discontinuity, unpredictability, exclusiveness and disconnectedness entailed in Africa’s participation in the contemporary world order. Although Chinese-led projects bring certain benefits to Malagasy communities, Chinese stakeholders in Africa are reinforcing and perpetuating the power hierarchy of a postcolonial world that systematically disadvantages underdeveloped countries such as Madagascar. The frictions in Chinese-Malagasy encounters are caused by different and unequal ways in which Chinese and Malagasy people are aspiring for better lives.
    • A 'third culture' in economics? An essay on Smith, Confucius and the rise of China

      Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Frankfurt, M., 2011)
      China's rise drives a growing impact of China on economics. So far, this mainly works via the force of example, but there is also an emerging role of Chinese thinking in economics. This paper raises the question how far Chinese perspectives can affect certain foundational principles in economics, such as the assumptions on individualism and self-interest allegedly originating in Adam Smith. I embark on sketching a 'third culture' in economics, employing a notion from cross-cultural communication theory, which starts out from the observation that the Chinese model was already influential during the European enlightenment, especially on physiocracy, suggesting a particular conceptualization of the relation between good government and a liberal market economy. I relate this observation with the current revisionist view on China's economic history which has revealed the strong role of markets in the context of informal institutions, and thereby explains the strong performance of the Chinese economy in pre-industrial times. I sketch the cultural legacy of this pattern for traditional Chinese conceptions of social interaction and behavior, which are still strong in rural society until today. These different strands of argument are woven together in a comparison between Confucian thinking and Adam Smith, especially with regard to the 'Theory of Moral Sentiments', which ends up in identifying a number of conceptual family resemblances between the two. I conclude with sketching a 'third culture' in economics in which moral aspects of economic action loom large, as well as contextualized thinking in economic policies.
    • A 'third culture' in economics? An essay on Smith, Confucius and the rise of China

      Herrmann-Pillath, Carsten (Frankfurt School of Finance & Management Frankfurt, M., 2011)
      China's rise drives a growing impact of China on economics. So far, this mainly works via the force of example, but there is also an emerging role of Chinese thinking in economics. This paper raises the question how far Chinese perspectives can affect certain foundational principles in economics, such as the assumptions on individualism and self-interest allegedly originating in Adam Smith. I embark on sketching a 'third culture' in economics, employing a notion from cross-cultural communication theory, which starts out from the observation that the Chinese model was already influential during the European enlightenment, especially on physiocracy, suggesting a particular conceptualization of the relation between good government and a liberal market economy. I relate this observation with the current revisionist view on China's economic history which has revealed the strong role of markets in the context of informal institutions, and thereby explains the strong performance of the Chinese economy in pre-industrial times. I sketch the cultural legacy of this pattern for traditional Chinese conceptions of social interaction and behavior, which are still strong in rural society until today. These different strands of argument are woven together in a comparison between Confucian thinking and Adam Smith, especially with regard to the 'Theory of Moral Sentiments', which ends up in identifying a number of conceptual family resemblances between the two. I conclude with sketching a 'third culture' in economics in which moral aspects of economic action loom large, as well as contextualized thinking in economic policies.
    • A adivinhação e as origens do pensamento científico na China

      Gonçalves, Rui Mário (1991)
      Este artigo apresenta um quadro geral da antiga civilização chinesa, inserindo no mesmo a problemática das práticas divinatórias e suas relações com o pensamento científico, cujas origens remontam a época da Dinastia Chang ou Yin (1708-1059 a.C.), focalizada mais detalhadamente neste trabalho. Datam dessa época os mais antigos textos da civilização chinesa - textos divinatórios que nos informam sobre a vida política, as crencas religiosas, a estrutura social e também sobre os primeiros ensaios do pensamento científico no Extremo Oriente como, por exemplo, a elaboração dos primeiros calendários. Ao término do artigo, apresenta-se o I-Ching (Livro das Mutações) e sua utilização nas artes divinatórias chinesas.
    • A Case Study of an Exemplary Chinese Principal

      Cadieux, Baifeng Sun (ScholarWorks at UMass Boston, 2017-08-31)
      In the 21st century, education reform is becoming a tremendously important lever for ensuring competitiveness and prosperity in the age of globalization for every nation. Now China is a critical world leader and a strategically important partner country for the U.S. to understand well, however, there is not much research literature about educational leadership practice in China. This qualitative case study describes how a Chinese school principal successfully transformed her school, the data collected from interviews with school staff and the principal herself illustrates how she was able to motivate those working for her to achieve their common school goals and ultimately to make the school recognized as one of the best schools in China. Two western leadership theories of Instructional Leadership and Transformational Leadership and the eastern Confucian values are applied as frameworks in this study. I have attempted to analyze this Chinese principals’ leadership style and reveal evidence of the functions and factors associated with effective instructional and transformational leaders. I also question how Confucianism, which is so engrained in Chinese culture, may have influenced this principal’s leadership practice and contributed to her success. The findings show that two western leadership theories do accurately describe an effective Chinese school principal’s leadership practice in China, There indeed are overlaps between the two western leadership theories and key Confucian Values. These findings show that successful principals may employ similar strategies to lead change and transform their schools in both US and China. Also these findings suggest that Instructional Leadership and Transformational Leadership theories should be emphasized more in principal professional development and training programs in both US and China; Confucian values of Ren, Jun Zi, Xiu Shen and Zhi Shan should be introduced into principal training and professional development programs in the US; and Chinese educators should revisit the deep meaning of Confucian values of Ren, Jun Zi, Xiu Shen and Zhi Shan for education leadership in China.
    • A Case Study of an Exemplary Chinese Principal

      Cadieux, Baifeng Sun (ScholarWorks at UMass Boston, 2017-08-01)
      In the 21st century, education reform is becoming a tremendously important lever for ensuring competitiveness and prosperity in the age of globalization for every nation. Now China is a critical world leader and a strategically important partner country for the U.S. to understand well, however, there is not much research literature about educational leadership practice in China. This qualitative case study describes how a Chinese school principal successfully transformed her school, the data collected from interviews with school staff and the principal herself illustrates how she was able to motivate those working for her to achieve their common school goals and ultimately to make the school recognized as one of the best schools in China. Two western leadership theories of Instructional Leadership and Transformational Leadership and the eastern Confucian values are applied as frameworks in this study. I have attempted to analyze this Chinese principals’ leadership style and reveal evidence of the functions and factors associated with effective instructional and transformational leaders. I also question how Confucianism, which is so engrained in Chinese culture, may have influenced this principal’s leadership practice and contributed to her success. The findings show that two western leadership theories do accurately describe an effective Chinese school principal’s leadership practice in China, There indeed are overlaps between the two western leadership theories and key Confucian Values. These findings show that successful principals may employ similar strategies to lead change and transform their schools in both US and China. Also these findings suggest that Instructional Leadership and Transformational Leadership theories should be emphasized more in principal professional development and training programs in both US and China; Confucian values of Ren, Jun Zi, Xiu Shen and Zhi Shan should be introduced into principal training and professional development programs in the US; and Chinese educators should revisit the deep meaning of Confucian values of Ren, Jun Zi, Xiu Shen and Zhi Shan for education leadership in China.
    • A Chinese Ethics for the New Century: The Ch'ien Mu Lectures in History and Culture, and Other Essays on Science and Confucian Ethics (review)

      Tan, Sor-hoon, 1965- (University of Hawai'i Press, 2007-04-18)
      China Review International - Volume 13, Number 1, Spring 2006
    • A Comparative Analysis of the Confucian and Christian Worldviews

      Chang, Peter T. (Globalization for the Common Good Initiative, 2009)
      This paper addresses the trepidations and challenges pertaining to the Confucian East and the Christian West delicate relationship. Do the two venerated traditions share sufficient commonality for a peaceable co-existence? Are their moral assumptions so diametrically divergent as to pose threats to each other’s worldviews? To explore these issues, I will compare the works of two historical figures, the Neo-Confucianist Wang Yang-ming (1472–1529) and the Anglican bishop Joseph Butler (1692–1752). The paper begins with an overview of Wang’s Confucian and Butler’s Christian moral vision (Part A). Part (B) then examines Wang and Butler’s reaction to the challenges of religious pluralism. In 16th C Ming China and 18th C England, while Confucianism and Christianity were then the dominant traditions respectively, the moral landscapes were also coloured by an array of competing moral visions. This section will explore how Wang and Butler dealt with these diverse and often times conflicting moral traditions. In Part (C) Wang and Butler is placed in an imaginary encounter where Wang’s hypothetical assessment of Butler’s project, and vice versa, is presented. I will analyse how the two thinkers would evaluate each other’s moral vision. Drawing on Wang and Butler I then argue the case for a Confucian East and Christian West mutually deferential relationship. While there are conspicuous differences Confucianism and Christianity also share critical core beliefs. It is these common values I submit that enable them to tolerate some divergences and accept each other’s moral vision as fundamentally sound, form the basis for an amiable co-existence.
    • A Comparative Study of Two Doctrines of the Mean between Aristotle and Confucius

      Scaltsas, Dory; Xia, Fang (2010-08-10)
      The doctrine of the Mean owns an important academic position in ethics theories both in the Western and Eastern philosophical fields. To understand the doctrine of the Mean will benefit further study of virtuous ethical theories. Therefore, I choose this topic as an approach to studying Aristotelian and Confucian ethics theories. The methodology I have chosen is a comparative study. The literary sources are mainly from Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and Zhongyong, which recorded Confucius’ theories of the Mean, and Confucius’ Lunyu as well.
 
 Firstly, I went through the text in Nicomachean Ethics and found out the logic of context, in order to understand Aristotle’s idea of the Mean. Secondly, I referenced and compared some scholars’ interpretations of the doctrine of the Mean, in order to get a fuller understanding. With this approach, I know that the Mean in Aristotle’s doctrine is moral virtue itself, which is a settled intermediate state of character, towards virtuous actions. With the same structure and method, I understand the doctrine of the Mean of Confucius. To Confucius, the Mean is Heavenly nature, being Zhong – He “Equilibrium - Harmony” and Cheng – Ming “Sincerity - Intelligence”. Confucius thinks that Heaven’s nature itself is the virtue of Heaven because it is innately good, so the doctrine of the Mean is a theory of virtue as well. To be virtuous, a man should become one with Heaven and Earth.
 
 A comparative methodology has two benefits. One benefit is that it works as a mirroring function. By mirroring each other, we can see various differences more clearly. For instance, at the end of this paper, one can see that the ways to becoming a virtuous person can vary. Aristotle, for example, argues for the neutral natures of men, while Confucius’ ethics theory is based on a claim of innate good natures of men. With acknowledging this difference, we can better understand their ethical theories. The other benefit is we can integrate with broader phenomenon to research, complete the methodology that we have used and open up approaches by a comparative way. Apparently, Aristotle and Confucius have come up with a similar theory utilizes different approaches and methodologies, and also they were focusing on different facts that existed in different eras and places. So, looking through their theories and then comparing them, we can find more sources to analyze along with double approaches and methods to understand the Mean, especially with these two typical theories in both West and East as the theories of Aristotle and Confucius’. 
 
 In the end, to compare Aristotle and Confucius’ theories is aiming to find a true knowledge of humanity. Although there are some objections to the possibility of this comparison, like Alasdair MacIntyre who described it as “incommensurability” (1991), I believe that the truth can be found, no matter the methodologies, approaches and sources used.
    • A Comparative Study of Two Doctrines of the Mean between Aristotle and Confucius

      Xia, Fang (Edinburgh Research Archive, 2009-11-26)
      The doctrine of the Mean owns an important academic position in ethics theories both in the Western and Eastern philosophical fields. To understand the doctrine of the Mean will benefit further study of virtuous ethical theories. Therefore, I choose this topic as an approach to studying Aristotelian and Confucian ethics theories. The methodology I have chosen is a comparative study. The literary sources are mainly from Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and Zhongyong, which recorded Confucius’ theories of the Mean, and Confucius’ Lunyu as well. Firstly, I went through the text in Nicomachean Ethics and found out the logic of context, in order to understand Aristotle’s idea of the Mean. Secondly, I referenced and compared some scholars’ interpretations of the doctrine of the Mean, in order to get a fuller understanding. With this approach, I know that the Mean in Aristotle’s doctrine is moral virtue itself, which is a settled intermediate state of character, towards virtuous actions. With the same structure and method, I understand the doctrine of the Mean of Confucius. To Confucius, the Mean is Heavenly nature, being Zhong – He “Equilibrium - Harmony” and Cheng – Ming “Sincerity - Intelligence”. Confucius thinks that Heaven’s nature itself is the virtue of Heaven because it is innately good, so the doctrine of the Mean is a theory of virtue as well. To be virtuous, a man should become one with Heaven and Earth. A comparative methodology has two benefits. One benefit is that it works as a mirroring function. By mirroring each other, we can see various differences more clearly. For instance, at the end of this paper, one can see that the ways to becoming a virtuous person can vary. Aristotle, for example, argues for the neutral natures of men, while Confucius’ ethics theory is based on a claim of innate good natures of men. With acknowledging this difference, we can better understand their ethical theories. The other benefit is we can integrate with broader phenomenon to research, complete the methodology that we have used and open up approaches by a comparative way. Apparently, Aristotle and Confucius have come up with a similar theory utilizes different approaches and methodologies, and also they were focusing on different facts that existed in different eras and places. So, looking through their theories and then comparing them, we can find more sources to analyze along with double approaches and methods to understand the Mean, especially with these two typical theories in both West and East as the theories of Aristotle and Confucius’. In the end, to compare Aristotle and Confucius’ theories is aiming to find a true knowledge of humanity. Although there are some objections to the possibility of this comparison, like Alasdair MacIntyre who described it as “incommensurability” (1991), I believe that the truth can be found, no matter the methodologies, approaches and sources used.
    • A Comparative Study of Two Doctrines of the Mean between Aristotle and Confucius

      Scaltsas, Dory; Xia, Fang (2010-08-10)
      The doctrine of the Mean owns an important academic position in ethics theories both in the Western and Eastern philosophical fields. To understand the doctrine of the Mean will benefit further study of virtuous ethical theories. Therefore, I choose this topic as an approach to studying Aristotelian and Confucian ethics theories. The methodology I have chosen is a comparative study. The literary sources are mainly from Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics and Zhongyong, which recorded Confucius’ theories of the Mean, and Confucius’ Lunyu as well.
 
 Firstly, I went through the text in Nicomachean Ethics and found out the logic of context, in order to understand Aristotle’s idea of the Mean. Secondly, I referenced and compared some scholars’ interpretations of the doctrine of the Mean, in order to get a fuller understanding. With this approach, I know that the Mean in Aristotle’s doctrine is moral virtue itself, which is a settled intermediate state of character, towards virtuous actions. With the same structure and method, I understand the doctrine of the Mean of Confucius. To Confucius, the Mean is Heavenly nature, being Zhong – He “Equilibrium - Harmony” and Cheng – Ming “Sincerity - Intelligence”. Confucius thinks that Heaven’s nature itself is the virtue of Heaven because it is innately good, so the doctrine of the Mean is a theory of virtue as well. To be virtuous, a man should become one with Heaven and Earth.
 
 A comparative methodology has two benefits. One benefit is that it works as a mirroring function. By mirroring each other, we can see various differences more clearly. For instance, at the end of this paper, one can see that the ways to becoming a virtuous person can vary. Aristotle, for example, argues for the neutral natures of men, while Confucius’ ethics theory is based on a claim of innate good natures of men. With acknowledging this difference, we can better understand their ethical theories. The other benefit is we can integrate with broader phenomenon to research, complete the methodology that we have used and open up approaches by a comparative way. Apparently, Aristotle and Confucius have come up with a similar theory utilizes different approaches and methodologies, and also they were focusing on different facts that existed in different eras and places. So, looking through their theories and then comparing them, we can find more sources to analyze along with double approaches and methods to understand the Mean, especially with these two typical theories in both West and East as the theories of Aristotle and Confucius’. 
 
 In the end, to compare Aristotle and Confucius’ theories is aiming to find a true knowledge of humanity. Although there are some objections to the possibility of this comparison, like Alasdair MacIntyre who described it as “incommensurability” (1991), I believe that the truth can be found, no matter the methodologies, approaches and sources used.
    • A COMPARATIVE STUDY ON VIEW POINTS OF IMAM ALI AND CONFUCIUS ON EDUCATION

      JAVANI, Hojjatollah; ; Alzahra University; HEYDARI, Marzyeh; ; Alzahra University; SHAHANGIAN, Noorisadat; ; Alzahra University (RATING ACADEMY, 2019-08-01)
      Generally speaking the matter of education has beenproposed during long history of human beings. As a matter of fact, Confucius asa great Chinese thinker and Imam Ali as a great Muslim Imam have paid tophilosophy, values and ends of education. It would be interesting to discusssimilarities and differences of these both distinguish thinkers in regard toEducation. One might be wondered as he come to know that both of them emphasison necessity and need of education for people. Although the end of educationmight differ among between them. Development and evolution of man’s capacitiesand faculties, realizing justice, paying attention to morals and everlastingvalues, training men through proper methods and leading men towards good deedsare among their similarities.
    • A comparison and critical estimate of the philosophy of Confucianism and Buddhism in relation to Christianity

      Cutler, Lucile. ([Place of publication not identified] : [publisher not identified]Princeton Theological Seminary Library, 1934)
    • A comprehensive analysis of the discourse between human rights theory and the Chinese Confucian intellectual tradition: John Rawls and Tu Weiming in conversation

      Johnson, Timothy Matthew (2013-09-13)
      Liberal human rights theory has informed Western political policy for decades. An ascending China challenges Western dominance in political theory and philosophy and forces Western theorists to respond. A comprehensive analysis of Western scholarship on human rights and the Confucian tradition makes it clear that there are many structural and systemic issues within this area of study. It also makes it clear that there have been many potentially useful observations and methodologies suggested throughout the literature that have been obscured. One such approach is applied that brings the political theory of John Rawls and Tu Weiming into conversation. As a result, a more nuanced understanding of the Chinese Confucian intellectual tradition in both Western and Chinese terms can be developed, while important questions are raised about human rights theory.
    • A Confucian Analysis of Chinese Tourists' Motivations

      Fu, Xiaoxiao; Cai, Liping; Lehto, Xinran (STARS, 2015-01-01)
      Studies to date of Chinese tourists as new consumers in the travel marketplace have been largely framed in the context of Western theories. This study initiates a qualitative inquiry to develop a conceptual framework for understanding Chinese tourists' motivations. The study is informed by Confucian doctrines and extant motivation theories, and substantiated by empirical findings from 79 in-depth interviews. Seen from the perspective of Confucianism, the framework illustrates that the motivations of Chinese tourists arise as a result of the gaps between the Way (the ideal end-state) and ways (the actual state). Tourism is a functional means to bridging multiple gaps perceived in inner as well as outer cultivation. Four conceptual themes are examined as propositions from the framework.
    • A confucian approach to developing ethical self-regulation in management

      Woods, Peter Robert; Lamond, David A. (Academy of Management, 2010)
    • A Confucian approach to developing ethical self-regulation in management

      Toombs, Leslie; Woods, Peter R; Lamond, David (Academy of Management, 2010)