中國大陸中小學教師「國培計畫」之研究 A Study on “National Teacher In-service Training Program” of Primary and Secondary School in China
education in China
national teacher in-service training program
teacher in-service training / teacher continuing education
Full recordShow full item record
Abstract本文主要是探究中國大陸中小學教師「國培計畫」的起源與發展，分析「國培計畫」的內涵、配套措施與實施成效，並歸納以上研究結果，提出對我國教師在職進修的啟示。本研究方法採取質性研究法，研究策略是採取文獻探討、田野調查、檔案分析與半結構式訪談，並於2012 年實地前往中國大陸陝西師範、西南大學教師教育研究室、教師進修中心、中小學等，並與大學教授與研究生、官員、中小學教師等進行訪談，本研究運用資料來源的多元性與資料種類多元性以進行三角檢正，並互惠互重以維護研究倫理。該計畫是由中央政府進行整體統籌，透過師資培育大學提供培育人才，並由地方政府連絡當地教師，規劃教師參訓時間，同時配合實習生頂替教師的方式協助安排調代課事宜，讓教師可以放心參訓。研究中提出中國大陸未來進行國培計畫的規劃應該再加強分層分類且適性化的培訓內容與目標，並於教師進修規劃應納入教師主動選擇與意願，增進教師參與動力與自主選擇權，並使培訓機構及學員間成為一個連續且相互交流的動態歷程。最後，培訓結果的評鑑應有系統的管理機制與反饋，使培訓效果更能掌握。儘管政治體制不同，但我國的教師培訓制度在實施精神與方式有其相似之處，值得做為我國未來規劃教師培訓之參考。 The study mainly explored the origins and development of the “National Teacher Inservice Training Program” for the primary and secondary school teachers in China, and analyzed the connotation, supporting measures and implementation outcomes of the national training plan. Finally, the writers summarized the above findings, pointing out their implications to teacher in-service training for the primary and secondary school teachers of Taiwan. Using qualitative research method, the research strategies adopted in this study included literature review, field investigation, document analysis, and semistructured interviews. Field studies to visit Shaanxi Normal University, Southwest of China University of Teacher Education Research Laboratory, teacher education centers, and primary and secondary schools were conducted in 2012, involving interviews with university professors and graduate students, officials, and primary and secondary school teachers. Diversified information sources and data were included to help the triangulation process. Moreover, the authors always kept in mind the mutual benefit and mutual respect in order to maintain the research ethics. The program was conducted by the central government while trainees were acquired through universities of education. On the other hand, local governments were in charge of contacting the teachers and managing the time of training as well as the interns to substitute the classes so that teachers could attend the training willingly with no doubts. The study suggested that the “National Teacher In-service Training Program” of primary and secondary schools in China can be improved along the gollowing lines. First, there should be a hierarchical classification and adaptive training in terms of contents and objectives. In addition, in order to enhance teachers’ motivation and subjectivity, their feedback and choices should be taken into consideration, regarding the training institutions and trainees as a continuous and dynamic process of mutual exchange. Finally, it is necessary to set up a systematical mechanism and management methods responsible for the evaluation of the training program in order to ensure its effectiveness. Although the regime of China is different from that of Taiwan, the spirits and modes of the teacher training system in these two countries are similar, and therefore the national teacher in-service training program in China is worthy to be the reference for Taiwan in the future.