Philosophy of Culture on the Philosophy of Modern Education in China
chinese philosophy of education
dialogue and education
Philosophy. Psychology. Religion
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AbstractIn Chinese philosophy, modern processes of searching for the fundamental values of the renewed strategies of education are based upon traditional Confucian approaches as well as upon recent borrowings from Western philosophy. The concept of philosophical dialogue is one example of these borrowings, adopted and radically changed following traditional Chinese logic. Such transformation means adapting the theoretical model of Socrates’ dialogue into Confucian dialogue, the term coined by Chinese authors. This paper considers Chinese developments in the philosophy of culture and aims to specify the ways of such adaptation as applicable to the philosophy of education. The goals of the study are 1) to identify and describe relevant Chinese literature on the subject; 2) to compare its interpretations by Chinese and Russian philosophers; 3) to specify key differences in interpretations of dialogue as educational method. Investigating the issue through philosophical and cultural lens, incorporating the standpoint of modern comparative studies, as well as the critical analysis of the logic of those theories in their historical and cultural context by means of the hermeneutic approach makes it possible for Chinese authors to focus on the cultural peculiarities of the Chinese way of thinking and to identify the correlation between the Western concept way of thinking and the concept of Chinese logic. This study analyzes the works of modern Chinese philosophers specializing in the specific cultural character of China through the prism of the philosophy of education. The paper concludes that in Chinese logic technical (in the Western understanding regarded as cognitive and formal logical) methods are inferior to ethical and social value orientations. Another finding is that Chinese authors tend to consider Confucian logic as part of dialogue, and dialogue is viewed as a means of moral education. Methodologically this finding leads the author to suggest that the Chinese-specific way of thinking, its philosophical culture, cannot be fully perceived by utilizing comparison with analogous concepts of Western philosophical thought. It would be equally beneficial to compare the conceptual framework of the Chinese philosophy of education with the concepts borrowed from Western philosophy.
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Sexuated Topology and the Suspension of Meaning: A Non-Hermeneutical Phenomenological Approach to Textual AnalysisBailey, Steven (2014-07-31)This study assumes the subject's pursuit of meaning is generally incapacitating and should be suspended. It aims to demonstrate how such a suspension is theoretically accomplished by utilizing Lacan's formulae of sexuation integrated with his work in discourse theory and topology. Part I places this study into context by examining scholarship from the established fields of hermeneutics, phenomenology, (post)structuralism, aesthetic theory and psychoanalysis in order to extract out their respective theory of meaning. These theories reveal that an historical struggle with meaning has been underway since the Reformation and reaches near crisis proportions in the 20th century. On the one hand this crisis is mollified by the rise of Heideggerian-Gadamerian hermeneutical phenomenology which questions traditional epistemological approaches to the text using a new ontological conceptualization of meaning and a conscious rejection of methodology. On the other hand this crisis is exacerbated when the ubiquitous nature of meaning is itself challenged by (post)structuralism's discovery of the signifier which inscribes a limit to meaning, and by the domains of sense and nonsense newly opened up by aesthetic theory. These historical developments culminate in the field of psychoanalysis which most consequentially delimits a cause of meaning said to be closely linked to the core of subjectivity. Part II extends these findings by rigorously constructing out of the Lacanian sexuated formulae a decidedly non-hermeneutical phenomenological approach useful in demonstrating the sexual nature of meaning. Explicated in their static state by way of an account of their original derivation from the Aristotelian logical square, it is argued that these four formulae are relevant to basic concerns of textual theory inclusive of the hermeneutical circle of meaning. These formulae are then set into motion by integrating them with Lacan's four discourses to demonstrate the breakdown of meaning. Finally, the cuts and sutures of two-dimensional space that is topology as set down in L'étourdit are performed to confirm how the very field of meaning is ultimately suspended from a nonsensical singular point known in Lacanian psychoanalysis as objet a. The contention is that by occupying this point the subject frees himself from the debilitating grip of meaning.
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