Can instructor-provided notes enhance learning in medical students?
KeywordsWe read with great interest the article by Gharravi A.M1 on the use of instructor provided notes in lectures. We would like to add our reflections as medical students. The study highlighted the benefits of a guided note-taking approach
improved quality of notes
greater student satisfaction and better exam results. This approach can provide a standardised platform for education and ensures the learning of correct content for examinations2. It can be a more active way to engage millennials learners. But the question remains
to which extent should this approach be implemented in the medical curriculum? We agree that subjects which require a deep understanding should utilise instructor guided notes to a degree. What remains to be explored is whether or not this style of learning can be applied holistically across a curriculum. In a study by Chen et al. 3
over half of the students felt that lecture guided notes negatively influenced their lecture taking. The study by Gharravi A.M1 showed a similar opinion. With 19.35% of students recommending this learning for biochemistry courses and 87.09% suggesting the notes require revision1
it’s important to appreciate that lecture guided notes do not address all of the shortcomings of self-directed note taking. Our exposure to lecture guided notes has been limited
but has been useful throughout our study. It has been used predominantly as an adjunct in the teaching of clinical sciences. We believe that the curriculum should incorporate a selection of teaching methods which cater for the needs of millennial students. Case-based teaching coupled with didactic lectures has been shown to increase depth of knowledge and integrate different concepts to maximise understanding4. We hold the view that the implementation of multimedia can further improve the learning experience
video recordings have been shown to be beneficial. They enable students to study content in their own time and can help them perform better in examinations5. This method of applying multiple learning theories into a curriculum has the potential to establish a more balanced pedagogy. There are many benefits for the use of lecture guided notes in educational institutions. The extent to which it should be applied in the medical curriculum is where the discussion lies. We encourage an approach that caters for all students and subjects. Lecture guided notes can be provided as an optional adjunct whilst ensuring the medical curriculum includes a wide range of teaching styles. We feel it is important to provide a multi-faceted approach
one that champions a more personalised and student-centred educational process.
Special aspects of education
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AbstractMunad-Ar-Rehman Mohammad, Muhammad Yousuf Hayat, Abdirahman Osman Faculty of Medicine, St George&rsquo;s Hospital Medical School, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Gharravi1 on the use of instructor-provided notes during lectures. We would like to add our reflections as medical students. The study highlighted the benefits of a guided note-taking approach, improved quality&nbsp; of notes, greater student satisfaction, and better exam results. This approach can provide a standardized platform for education and ensures the learning of correct content for examinations.2 It can be a more active way to engage millennial learners. But&nbsp; the question remains, to which extent should this approach be implemented in the medical curriculum?&nbsp;Author&#39;s reply&nbsp;Anneh Mohammad GharraviSchool of Medicine, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran&nbsp;This letter is in response to the letter by Munad-Ar-Rehman Mohammad et al, which argued that in my paper (Gharrai, 2018)1 the question remains, to which extent should instructor provided notes be implemented in the medical curriculum? Because anatomy education is stressful and time-consuming for both teachers and students, results of my article recommended instructor-provided notes for anatomy teaching and learning.2&nbsp;&nbsp;View the original paper by Gharravi.&nbsp;
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Distance Education and Community Learning Networks linked by a Library of CultureSantiago, Joseph A (DigitalCommons@URI, 2011-02-14)Humans are relational beings with their modeled behavior as practical examples of cultural routines that they hear, see, read, and assemble on their own from communal pieces of information to answer the needs of their everyday lives (Bandura, & Jeffrey, 1973). Yet few researchers have looked at the differing synthesis of culture and generally assume that others share similar ideas/values that lead to particular events and worldviews (Lillard, p.5 1998). Informational and cultural contact zones can be created to support CLNs, universities, and individuals in a variety of roles to encourage their interactions so they might design, and challenge the fundamentals of these programs and seek to better cooperation amongst the public itself (Tremmel, 2000). By increasing communication and collaboration of educational systems throughout the community will begin to raise the standard of living for all people (Bohn, & Schmidt, 2008). This will begin to draw people out from the digital divide and increase the access of technology and information available to all people with the community. Utilizing CLNs to support and further education will allow an interconnected web of assessments, standards, and cooperative efforts that has the potential of increasing democracy by empowering people from their communities.
Integrated problem-based learning versus lectures: a path analysis modelling of the relationships between educational context and learning approaches.Gustin, M.P.; Abbiati, M.; Bonvin, R.; Gerbase, M.W.; Baroffio, A. (2018-12)Students' approaches to learning are central to the process of learning. Previous research has revealed that influencing students' approaches towards deep learning is a complex process and seems much more difficult than expected, even in student-activating learning environments. There is evidence that learning approaches are impacted not only by the learning environment, but also by how students perceive it. However the nature of the links between the environment itself, the way in which it is perceived by students and students' learning approaches is poorly understood. This study aimed at investigating the relationships between students' perception of their educational context and learning approaches in three learning environments differing by their teaching formats (lecture or problem-based-learning PBL) and integration level of the curriculum (traditional or integrated). We tested the hypothesis that a PBL format and an integrated curriculum are associated to deeper approaches to learning and that this is mediated by student perception. The study sample was constituted of 1394 medical students trained respectively in a traditional lecture-based (n = 295), in an integrated lecture-based (n = 612) and in an integrated PBL-based (n = 487) curricula. They completed a survey including the Dundee-Ready-Educational-Environment-Measure (students' perceptions of the educational environment) and the Revised-Study-Process-Questionnaire (learning approaches). Data were analysed by path analysis. The model showed that the learning environment was related to students' learning approaches by two paths, one direct and one mediated via students' perception of their educational context. In the lecture-based curricula students' used deeper approaches when it was integrated and both paths were cumulative. In the PBL-based curriculum students' did not use deeper approaches than with lectures, due to opposite effects of both paths. This study suggested that an integrated lecture-based curriculum was as effective as a PBL curriculum in promoting students' deep learning approaches, reinforcing the importance of integrating the curriculum before choosing the teaching format.
Student approaches for learning in medicine: What does it tell us about the informal curriculum?Zhang, J.; Peterson, R.; Ozolins, I. (BioMed Central Ltd., 2011)Background: It has long been acknowledged that medical students frequently focus their learning on that which will enable them to pass examinations, and that they use a range of study approaches and resources in preparing for their examinations. A recent qualitative study identified that in addition to the formal curriculum, students are using a range of resources and study strategies which could be attributed to the informal curriculum. What is not clearly established is the extent to which these informal learning resources and strategies are utilized by medical students. The aim of this study was to establish the extent to which students in a graduate-entry medical program use various learning approaches to assist their learning and preparation for examinations, apart from those resources offered as part of the formal curriculum. Methods: A validated survey instrument was administered to 522 medical students. Factor analysis and internal consistence, descriptive analysis and comparisons with demographic variables were completed. The factor analysis identified eight scales with acceptable levels of internal consistency with an alpha coefficient between 0.72 and 0.96. Results: Nearly 80% of the students reported that they were overwhelmed by the amount of work that was perceived necessary to complete the formal curriculum, with 74.3% believing that the informal learning approaches helped them pass the examinations. 61.3% believed that they prepared them to be good doctors. A variety of informal learning activities utilized by students included using past student notes (85.8%) and PBL tutor guides (62.7%), and being part of self-organised study groups (62.6%), and peer-led tutorials (60.2%). Almost all students accessed the formal school resources for at least 10% of their study time. Students in the first year of the program were more likely to rely on the formal curriculum resources compared to those of Year 2 (p = 0.008). Conclusions: Curriculum planners should examine the level of use of informal learning activities in their schools, and investigate whether this is to enhance student progress, a result of perceived weakness in the delivery and effectiveness of formal resources, or to overcome anxiety about the volume of work expected by medical programs.