El trabajo de la UNESCO sobre la educación de personas adultas y la educación como bien común: Aportes y reflexiones
EDUCAÇÃO DE ADULTOS
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AbstractLa educación de personas adultas se ha desarrollado en el tiempo como un área particular de investigación, reflexión y acción educativa; un área que favorece una visión de la educación como acción social. A la luz de las múltiples crisis del mundo contemporáneo, este articulo reflexiona sobre el papel complementario que la educación de personas adultas aporta para reforzar el valor educativo de la acción social para el desarrollo de las sociedades contemporáneas a partir de las aportaciones que nos ofrece la labor normativa así como el trabajo conceptual sobre la educación de personas adultas y la educación como bien común, que ha realizado la Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura (UNESCO).
Adult education has been developed over time as a particular area of research, reflection and educational action; an area that favours a vision of education as a social action. In the light of the multiple crises of the contemporary world, this article reflects on the complementary role that adult education contributes to reinforce the educational value of social action for the development of contemporary societies. This development comes from the contributions that normative work offers us as well as the conceptual work on adult education and education as a common good, which has been carried out by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
A educação de adultos desenvolveu-se ao longo do tempo como uma área particular de investigação, reflexão e ação educativa. Apresenta-se como uma área que favorece uma visão de educação como ação social. Na sequência das múltiplas crises do mundo contemporâneo, este artigo integra uma reflexão sobre o papel complementar que a educação de adultos carrega para reforçar o valor educativo da ação social par ao desenvolvimento das sociedades contemporâneas, a partir dos contributos legislativos, assim como os contributos teóricos no âmbito da educação de adultos e da educação como bem comum que tem levado a cabo a Organização das Nações Unidas para a Educação, Ciência e Cultura (UNESCO).
L’éducation des adultes s’est développé au fil du temps comme un domaine particulier de recherche, réflexion et action éducative. C’est un domaine qui favorise une vision de l’éducation comme action social. A partir des multiples crises que le monde contemporain a vécu récemment, cet article discute le rôle complémentaire de l’éducation des adultes pour le renforcement de la valeur éducative de l’action sociale et pour le développent des sociétés contemporaines. Cette discussion est faite a partir des discussions que nous offrent les documents légaux, mais aussi les propositions conceptuelles, sur l’éducation des adultes et l’éducation comme bien commun développé par l’Organisation des Nations Unies pour l’éducation, la science et la culture (UNESCO).
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.