Analysis of the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking, student performance on the Tests of Achievement and Proficiency, and student grade point averages among minority students in a racially changing neighborhood.
Author(s)Wright, Otis B.
KeywordsEducation, Tests and Measurements.
Education, Educational Psychology.
Cornell Critical Thinking Test.
Chicago Tests of Achievement and Proficiency.
Critical thinking Study and teaching (secondary) Illinois Chicago.
Educational tests and measurements Illinois Chicago.
Minority students Illinois Chicago Rating of.
Minority students Education (secondary) Illinois Chicago.
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This study examined the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking ability and student achievement among minority students in a racially changing neighborhood. The Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level X, was used to measure student critical thinking ability. The Chicago Tests of Achievement and Proficiency test scores and cumulative grade point averages were the indicators of student achievement.The study was divided into two parts. The sample for the first part of the study comprised 90 high-school students. This sample included 30 seniors, 30 juniors, and 30 sophomores. The first part of the study sought to demonstrate the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking ability and student achievement. The 90 students were given the Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level X. Their scores from this test were correlated with their scores from the Chicago Tests of Achievement and Proficiency and with their cumulative grade point averages.The second part of the study investigated the underlying causes of the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking ability and student achievement. The sample for this part of the study was comprised of 44 high-school teachers, 6 high-school administrators, and 60 high-school students. The high-school students were comprised of 20 seniors, 20 juniors, and 20 sophomores. The 44 teachers and 6 administrators were interviewed by the researcher. Sixty high-school students completed a questionnaire designed to elicit responses relative to the underlying causes of the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking ability and student achievement. These data were analyzed to determine if the responses from the teachers, administrators and students were substantially related.The first part of the study determined that there was not a strong relationship between student critical thinking as measured by the Cornell Critical Thinking Test and student achievement as measured by scores from the Chicago Tests of Achievement and Proficiency and student cumulative grade point average. The second part of the study determined that the responses given by teachers, administrators, and students were substantially related as to the underlying causes of the inconsistencies in the relationship between student critical thinking ability and student achievement.
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Notes from the Ground: Teachers, principals, and students' perspectives on the Chicago High School Redesign Initiative, year twoJoseph Kahne; Macarena Correa; Susan E. Sporte (Consortium on Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago Urban Education Institute, 2004-09-09)This report follows up the Consortium's 2003 data brief, Chicago High School Redesign Initiative: A snapshot of the first year of implementation. Both reports examine the implementation experiences of small high schools, and will serve as springboards for a systematic, three-year qualitative study beginning in fall 2004. In this interview-based report, the responses of students, teachers and principals from 11 CHSRI-supported small schools are compiled to examine questions within four broad topics: how Chicago Public Schools policies relate to small schools; characteristics of the small schools; integration of support, standards, thematic focus, student interest and community involvement; and student experience and instructional reform. Notes from the Ground also includes issues for discussion and action among stakeholders, as Chicago continues to open small schools under the proposed Renaissance 2010 plan.
Precalculus Students' Achievement When Learning Functions: Influences of Opportunity to Learn and Technology from a University of Chicago School Mathematics Project StudyHauser, Laura A. (Scholar Commons, 2015-01-01)The concept of function is one of the essential topics in the teaching and learning of secondary mathematics because of the central and unifying role it plays within secondary and college level mathematics. Organizations, such as the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, suggest students should be able to make connections across multiple representations of mathematical functions by the time they complete high school. Despite the prominent role functions play in secondary mathematics curriculum, students continue to struggle with the complex notion of functions and especially have difficulty using the different representations that are inherent to functions (algebraic, graphical and tabular). Technology is often considered an effective tool in raising student achievement, especially in learning functions where the different representations of a graphing calculator are analogous to the different representations of a function. Opportunity to learn is another important consideration when examining achievement and is generally considered one of, if not the most important, factor in student achievement. Opportunity to learn, or the measure of to what extent students have had an opportunity to learn or review a concept, is often measured with self-reports of content coverage. This study examined the relationship between opportunity to learn, students'; use of graphing calculators, and achievement within a curriculum that supports integrated use of technology and focuses on conceptual understanding of mathematical concepts. The research questions focused on what opportunities students had to learn functions from the enacted curriculum, what calculator strategies students used when solving function problems, how both opportunity to learn and calculator strategies influenced student achievement, and what relationships exist between opportunity to learn, use of calculator strategies, and student achievement. This study is an in-depth secondary analysis of a portion of data collected as part of the evaluation study of Precalculus and Discrete Mathematics (Third Edition, Field-Trial Version) developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project. Participants in this study (n = 271) came from six schools, seven teachers, and 14 classes. Instruments in this study include two pretests (one with technology and one without) and three posttests (two with technology and one without) and a calculator usage survey for one posttest. In addition to five student assessments, teachers completed opportunity-to-learn surveys for the posttests and chapter evaluations forms on which they indicated the lessons taught and the homework problems assigned from the textbook. Some students (n = 151) had access to graphing calculators equipped with computer algebra systems (CAS) while others (n = 120) had access to graphing calculators. Students had multiple opportunities to learn functions as measured by lessons taught, homework assigned, and posttest items teachers reported as having taught or reviewed the content necessary for students to correctly answer the items. Overall, students showed a positive increase in achievement between the pretests and posttests. In general, achievement was positively correlated to OTL Lessons, negatively correlated to OTL Homework, and had no correlation to OTL Posttests when controlling for prior knowledge. Results indicate students appear to be, for the most part, making wise choices about when and how to use graphing calculators to solve function items. Students prefer the graphical representation and are rarely using CAS features or tables, even when they are the best choices for solving a problem. Results from hierarchical linear models (HLM) show use of strategies (beta = 0.96), access to CAS (beta = 5.12), and OTL lessons (beta = 0.75) all had significant and positive impacts on student achievement for one of the posttests, when controlling for prior knowledge. Results from path analyses also indicated use of strategies had a direct and positive effect (beta =0 .14) on student achievement but showed access to CAS had a negative indirect effect (beta = -0.64) on student achievement for the same posttest mitigated through OTL Lessons (beta = 0.30). The results of this study have implications for both researchers and mathematics educators who seek to understand ways in which teachers can increase students'; understanding of functions and student achievement. The relationship between the use of technology and student achievement in relation to opportunity to learn is complex, but use of calculator strategies appears to have a positive effect on students' opportunity to learn functions and student achievement when used in a curriculum that focuses on conceptual understanding and integrates technology.
Preparing urban students to teach in the urban classroom: Chicago State University’s PhysTEC Program<vcard>BEGIN:vCard\nVERSION:3.0\nFN:Mel Sabella\nTITLE:\nORG:Chicago State University\nADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;Chemistry and Physics Department;9501 South King Drive;Chicago;IL;60628-1598;US\nTEL;TYPE=Office:+773-995-2172\nTEL;TYPE=:+\nTEL;TYPE=FAX:+773-995-3809\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,Work:firstname.lastname@example.org\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,:\nEND:vCard</vcard>; <vcard>BEGIN:vCard\nVERSION:3.0\nFN:Andrea Gay Van Duzor\nADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;;;;;;US\nEND:vCard</vcard>; <vcard>BEGIN:vCard\nVERSION:3.0\nORG:American Physical Society\nADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;One Physics Ellipse;;College Park;MD;20740-3844;US\nTEL;TYPE=Organization:+(301) 209-3200\nTEL;TYPE=Organization:+301-209-3269\nTEL;TYPE=FAX:+(301) 209-0865\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,Public Info:email@example.com\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,Membership:firstname.lastname@example.org\nEND:vCard</vcard>Chicago State University is positioning itself to be a leader in preparing science teachers for the urban instructional environment by incorporating innovative, research-based instructional materials in its courses and by providing intellectual and financial support to students who choose to pursue certification in science. This past year, CSU was one of five institutions to receive funding from the American Physical Society’s PhysTEC Program to recruit students into teaching and provide a model instructional program for students interested in becoming physics teachers. Students chosen as PhysTEC fellows at CSU will have the opportunity to act as Learning Assistants in our introductory physics courses with Physics Education Research (PER) based curricula and engage in an action research project with an inservice high school physics teacher in the Teacher Immersion Institute. The intent of the PhysTEC program at CSU is to recruit more physics students into teaching and to support them in their academic and early professional careers.