Author(s)Smallwood, Andrew Peter.
Education, Adult and Continuing.
X, Malcolm, 1925-1965.
African Americans Education.
Adult education United States.
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AbstractSorry, the full text of this article is not available in Huskie Commons. Please click on the alternative location to access it.
This dissertation examined Malcolm X to assess his contributions to both the field of practice and the function of Adult Education in developing civil society. A review of literature was conducted and this provided a historical and societal context for understanding the historical barriers Blacks faced in receiving an education, the importance of non-formal learning as an alternative approach to teaching Black adults, and a means of developing the research themes used to guide this study. Three such themes were identified: community educator, community activist, precursor to the Afrocentric perspective.Kawaida Theory was employed to interpret the data collected around each of the three themes. Kawaida Theory, as an applied analytical tool, involves the use of an Afrocentric concept of culture, which was used to locate Malcolm X within the traditions of the African American culture. Kawaida Theory is comprised of seven subject areas: history, religion, social organization, political organization, economic organization, creative production, and ethos. Malcolm X's statements relative to each were analyzed around each of these.The findings of this study are that Malcolm X practiced non-formal adult education by using self-study, life experiences, and religious ideology during both phases of his life to critically examine Black life and teach Black adults through his public statements. Because Malcolm X's examination of Black life focused on the elimination of ignorance through educating Black people, there were at least three contributions of this study to adult education: (1) demonstrates the historical vacuum now found in adult education regarding the contributions of African Americans and promotes inquiry regarding other underrepresented groups; (2) illustrates the potential of Kawaida Theory as an analytical tool for the "intra-cultural" analysis of Black subjects; and (3) establishes Malcolm X as a recognized adult educator.Three suggestions are made for further research: (1) Black literature provides a useful tool to examine leaders or educational activities within the field of adult education, (2) the study of non-formal education in social movements has not been fully exploited, and (3) research within cultural traditions provides new dimensions of the field.