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dc.contributor.authorElgazzar, Heba
dc.contributor.authorArfa, Chokri
dc.contributor.authorSalti, Nisreen
dc.contributor.authorMajbouri, Mehdi
dc.contributor.authorSalehi-Isfahani, Djavad
dc.contributor.authorRaad, Firas
dc.contributor.authorChaaban, Jad
dc.contributor.authorFesharaki, Sanaz
dc.contributor.authorMataria, Awad
dc.date.accessioned2019-09-25T19:40:06Z
dc.date.available2019-09-25T19:40:06Z
dc.date.created2013-10-24 16:06
dc.date.issued2013-05-29
dc.identifieroai:openknowledge.worldbank.org:10986/13606
dc.identifierhttp://hdl.handle.net/10986/13606
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12424/453932
dc.description.abstractEnsuring affordable, effective health care and financial protection against the adverse effects of household out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditures represents an important policy objective in most countries, yet relatively little evidence exists regarding patterns and implications of household health expenditures in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. This paper examines the scope of out-of-pocket expenditures and their implications on living standards and policy reforms in six MENA countries including Yemen, the West Bank and Gaza, Egypt, Iran, Tunisia, and Lebanon. Results show that OOP payments represent a relatively high share of total national health care financing at 49 percent on average in the MENA region as of 2006. Households pay an average of 6 percent of their total household expenditure on health. Most of this OOP is spent on medications, doctor visits and diagnostic services. Lower-income and rural households generally face greater financial risk; yet this is reversed where private health services are utilized and paid for more frequently by higher-income groups. 7 to 13 percent of households face particularly high OOP payments, or catastrophic expenditures equal to at least 10 percent of household spending. Poverty rates tend to increase by up to 20 percent after health care spending is accounted for. Results are discussed in light of ongoing policy efforts to strengthen social protection for health care.
dc.languageEnglish
dc.languageen_US
dc.language.isoeng
dc.publisherWorld Bank, Washington, DC
dc.relation.ispartofHealth, Nutrition and Population (HNP) discussion paper;
dc.rightshttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/
dc.subjectINFORMAL SECTOR
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE ACCESS
dc.subjectSUSTAINABILITY
dc.subjectINPATIENT HOSPITAL CARE
dc.subjectDISADVANTAGED COMMUNITIES
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE FINANCING
dc.subjectINPATIENT CARE
dc.subjectHEALTH OUTCOMES
dc.subjectEMPOWERMENT
dc.subjectPUBLIC INSURANCE SCHEMES
dc.subjectPROTECTION MECHANISMS
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE SPENDING
dc.subjectILLNESS
dc.subjectPUBLIC SECTORS
dc.subjectPRIMARY HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE RESOURCES
dc.subjectHEALTH INSURANCE SCHEME
dc.subjectFINANCIAL BARRIERS
dc.subjectPRIVATE SECTOR
dc.subjectFEE-FOR-SERVICE BASIS
dc.subjectPHYSICIAN
dc.subjectPHYSICIANS
dc.subjectRURAL HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subjectANTENATAL CARE
dc.subjectRURAL REGIONS
dc.subjectHEALTH NEEDS
dc.subjectPERFORMANCE INDICATORS
dc.subjectHEALTH SERVICE USE
dc.subjectSAFETY NETS
dc.subjectPUBLIC COVERAGE
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE PROVIDERS
dc.subjectHEALTH SECTOR REFORM
dc.subjectHEALTH EXPENDITURE
dc.subjectPRIVATE HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subjectFINANCE OF HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectMEDICAL COSTS
dc.subjectHEALTH SYSTEM
dc.subjectPOLICY RESEARCH
dc.subjectINEQUITY IN HEALTH
dc.subjectHOSPITAL CARE
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE COSTS
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS
dc.subjectINFANT MORTALITY RATE
dc.subjectMALNUTRITION
dc.subjectINSURANCE PLANS
dc.subjectPHARMACEUTICAL EXPENDITURES
dc.subjectPUBLIC INSURANCE
dc.subjectHEALTH FINANCING
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subjectDETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
dc.subjectINFANT MORTALITY
dc.subjectPRIVATE CLINICS
dc.subjectMEDICAL ASSOCIATION
dc.subjectPUBLIC EXPENDITURE
dc.subjectHOSPITALS
dc.subjectPRIVATE HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subjectVISITS
dc.subjectLOW-INCOME COUNTRIES
dc.subjectINTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS
dc.subjectINCOME GROUPS
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE FACILITIES
dc.subjectPUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subjectHEALTH STATUS
dc.subjectCATASTROPHIC EXPENDITURES
dc.subjectHEALTH SYSTEMS
dc.subjectECONOMIC GROWTH
dc.subjectWORKERS
dc.subjectPHARMACEUTICAL SERVICES
dc.subjectNATIONAL HEALTH SPENDING
dc.subjectHEALTH SECTOR
dc.subjectHEALTH SERVICE
dc.subjectHEALTH ORGANIZATION
dc.subjectBASIC HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subjectNATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subjectFINANCIAL PROTECTION
dc.subjectNATIONAL HEALTH INSURANCE FUND
dc.subjectHEALTHCARE
dc.subjectHEALTH SERVICE UTILIZATION
dc.subjectPOCKET PAYMENTS FOR HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectDIAGNOSTIC SERVICES
dc.subjectIMMUNIZATION
dc.subjectSOCIAL SECURITY SCHEMES
dc.subjectNATIONAL HEALTH
dc.subjectHEALTH FINANCING SCHEME
dc.subjectBASIC HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectHEALTH SPENDING
dc.subjectPROVISION OF SERVICES
dc.subjectDRUGS
dc.subjectINCOME COUNTRIES
dc.subjectDEMAND FOR HEALTH
dc.subjectPRIVATE SPENDING
dc.subjectDECISION MAKING
dc.subjectLIVING STANDARDS
dc.subjectHUMAN DEVELOPMENT
dc.subjectHEALTH POLICY
dc.subjectFAMILY PLANNING
dc.subjectDEMAND FOR HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subjectINPATIENT HOSPITAL
dc.subjectINSURANCE PREMIUMS
dc.subjectHEALTH PROJECT
dc.subjectLABOR MARKETS
dc.subjectABILITY TO PAY
dc.subjectACCESS TO HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectINFANTS
dc.subjectSOCIAL EXCLUSION
dc.subjectINTERVENTION
dc.subjectMORTALITY
dc.subjectNUTRITION
dc.subjectHEALTH EXPENDITURES
dc.subjectVACCINATION
dc.subjectELIGIBLE BENEFICIARIES
dc.subjectREHABILITATION
dc.subjectQUALITY OF HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectPRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subjectPOVERTY REDUCTION
dc.subjectFINANCIAL RISK
dc.subjectREPRODUCTIVE HEALTH
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE NEEDS
dc.subjectHEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subjectQUALITY OF CARE
dc.subjectPUBLIC SECTOR
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE USE
dc.subjectPUBLIC HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEMES
dc.subjectPRIVATE INSURANCE
dc.subjectSOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE SCHEMES
dc.subjectPAYMENTS FOR HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectRURAL AREAS
dc.subjectHEALTH INTERVENTIONS
dc.subjectPATIENTS
dc.subjectBASIC SERVICES
dc.subjectFEE-FOR-SERVICE
dc.subjectQUALITY OF HEALTH
dc.subjectHEALTH ECONOMICS
dc.subjectDENTAL CARE
dc.subjectPRIMARY CARE
dc.subjectCHILD HEALTH SERVICES
dc.subjectCOSTS OF HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectCLINICS
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE
dc.subjectHEALTH INDICATORS
dc.subjectHOUSEHOLD EXPENDITURE
dc.subjectCATASTROPHIC HEALTH SPENDING
dc.subjectSOCIAL SECURITY
dc.subjectPROVIDER INCENTIVES
dc.subjectINCOME HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subjectSOCIAL WELFARE
dc.subjectCHILD HEALTH
dc.subjectMEDICATION
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE EXPENDITURE
dc.subjectHEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE
dc.subjectNATIONAL HEALTH EXPENDITURES
dc.subjectHEALTH SERVICE DELIVERY
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE PERSONNEL
dc.subjectINFORMATION SYSTEMS
dc.subjectHEALTH CONDITIONS
dc.subjectFINANCIAL CONSEQUENCES
dc.subjectPOCKET PAYMENTS BY HOUSEHOLDS
dc.subjectCOSTS OF CARE
dc.subjectPROTECTIONS
dc.subjectHR
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE COVERAGE
dc.subjectOUTPATIENT SERVICES
dc.subjectSOCIAL HEALTH INSURANCE
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE EXPENDITURES
dc.subjectHEALTH SERVICES
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE SYSTEM
dc.subjectUSE OF HEALTH CARE SERVICES
dc.subjectPOCKET PAYMENTS
dc.subjectLOW INCOME
dc.subjectHEALTH CARE FINANCE
dc.subjectPUBLIC PROVIDERS
dc.subjectINCOME
dc.subjectDELIVERY OF HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectHEALTH WORKERS
dc.subjectPRIMARY HEALTH CARE
dc.subjectPUBLIC HEALTH
dc.subjectEXPOSURE
dc.subjectDIABETES
dc.titleWho pays? Out-of-Pocket Health Spending and Equity Implications in the Middle East and North Africa
ge.collectioncodeEC
ge.dataimportlabelOAI metadata object
ge.identifier.legacyglobethics:5528718
ge.identifier.permalinkhttps://www.globethics.net/gel/5528718
ge.lastmodificationdate2014-04-01 15:14
ge.submissions0
ge.oai.exportid147450
ge.oai.repositoryid7552
ge.oai.setnameHealth, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Discussion Papers
ge.oai.setspechdl_10986_12995
ge.oai.streamid7
ge.setnameGlobeEthicsLib
ge.setspecglobeethicslib
ge.linkhttp://hdl.handle.net/10986/13606


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