Justice in human research ethics : a conceptual and practical guide
واصفات البياناتعرض سجل المادة الكامل
AbstractOne of the core values to be applied by a body reviewing the ethics of human research is justice. The inclusion of justice as a requirement in the ethical review of human research is relatively recent and its utility had been largely unexamined until debates arose about the conduct of international biomedical research in the late 1990s. The subsequent amendment of authoritative documents in ways that appeared to shift the meaning of conceptions of justice generated a deal of controversy. Another difficulty has been that both the theory and the substance of justice that are applied by researchers or reviewers can be frequently seen to be subjective. Both the concept of justice – whether distributive or commutative - and what counts as a just distribution or exchange – are given different weight and meanings by different people. In this paper, the origins and more recent debates about the requirement to consider justice as a criterion in the ethical review of human research are traced, relevant conceptions of justice are distinguished and the manner in which they can be applied meaningfully in the ethical review all human research is identified. The way that these concepts are articulated in, and the intent and function of, specific paragraphs of the National Statement on Ethical Conduct in Human Research (NHMRC, ARC, UA, 2007) (National Statement) is explained. The National Statement identifies a number of issues that should be considered when a human research ethics committee is reviewing the justice aspects of an application. It also provides guidance to researchers as to how they can show that there is a fair distribution of burdens and benefits in the participant experience and the research outcomes. It also provides practical guidance to researchers on how to think through issues of justice so that they can demonstrate that the design of their research projects meets this ethical requirement is also provided
Copyright/LicenseCopyright 2014 Monash University, Centre for Human Bioethics
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عرض الملفات ذات الصلة بواسطة: العنوان، المؤلف، المنشئ والموضوع.
Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und BibliothekareFerus, A. (Andreas) (Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare, 2014-03)Heft 1 des 67. Jahrgangs (2014) der Mitteilungen der Vereinigung Österreichischer Bibliothekarinnen und Bibliothekare
Ethical Issues in the Big Data IndustryMartin, Kirsten E (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2015-05-28)Big Data combines information from diverse sources to create knowledge, make better predictions and tailor services. This article analyzes Big Data as an industry, not a technology, and identifies the ethical issues it faces. These issues arise from reselling consumers' data to the secondary market for Big Data. Remedies for the issues are proposed, with the goal of fostering a sustainable Big Data Industry.Click here for podcast summary (mp3)Click here for free 2-page executive summary (pdf)Click here for free presentation slides (pptx)
But What IS the 'Right Thing'?: Ethics and Information Systems in the Corporate DomainSmith, H. Jeff (AIS Electronic Library (AISeL), 2008-02-08)Information systems executives, and other executives, are often prodded to "do the right thing" when they face ethical quandaries. But how do they determine what is "right" ethically, especially when the ethical quandaries occur in the corporate domain? Some individuals rely solely on their own emotions, but they often have a hard time convincing rational thinkers to embrace their position. Other individuals rely on traditional philosophical theories, but this approach is seldom optimal in the corporate domain because the traditional philosophical theories do not specifically address the corporate setting. However, two theories do address ethical quandaries in the private sector: stockholder theory and stakeholder theory. This article discusses these two theories. Stockholder theory holds that executives should resolve ethical quandaries by taking actions that maximize the long-term profits to stockholders without violating the law or engaging in fraud or deception. Stakeholder theory claims that executives should resolve ethical quandaries by balancing stakeholder interests without violating the rights of any stakeholder. These theories are explored by first applying them to a specific real-world quandary: Blockbuster Video's reported plans to market its customer lists. Then the theories are applied to several other current quandaries. Finally, the article explores action steps for applying each theory.