Who Participates : The Supply of Volunteer Labor and the Distribution of Government Programs in Rural Peru
Author(s)Schady, Norbert R.
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AbstractNumerous analysts have linked volunteering and participation to positive economic and political outcomes. The author uses the 1994 Peru Living Standards Measurement Survey to analyze volunteering patterns in rural Peru. He finds that volunteers in rural Peru have a high opportunity cost of time. They are more educated and more likely to hold a job. Other household characteristics, such as gender, marital status, length of residence, and ethnicity, are also important predictors of the probability of volunteering. Controlling for household characteristics, communities differ widely in aggregate volunteer levels. These differences seem unrelated to differences in patterns of government expenditures. Volunteering may have important benefits in building social capital and encouraging greater ownership of development projects. For example, many public programs in rural Peru and elsewhere ask that the intended beneficiaries "participate" as a means of building trust and social capital, increasing the sustainability of investments and helping self-target investments to the poor. But the author finds that encouraging participation by potential beneficiaries is unlikely to be an effective form of self-targeting, since people with a higher opportunity cost of time volunteer more. Moreover, social programs that require participation may have difficulty reaching some vulnerable groups, such as women and the illiterate.
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Poverty and Economic Growth in Egypt, 1995-2000El-Laithy, Heba; Banerji, Arup; Lokshin, Michael (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2014-05-05)After a decade of slow economic growth
Egypt's rate of growth recovered in the late 1990s,
averaging more than five percent a year. But the effect of
this growth on poverty patterns has not been systematically
examined using consistent, comparable household datasets. In
this paper, the authors use the rich set of unit-level data
from the most recent Egyptian household surveys (1995-96 and
1999-2000) to assess changes in poverty and inequality
between 1995 and 2000. Their analysis is based on
household-specific poverty lines that account for the
differences in regional prices, as well as differences in
the consumption preferences and size and age composition of
poor households. The results show that average household
expenditures rose in the second half of the 1990s and the
poverty rate fell from 20 percent to less than 17 percent.
But, in addition to the ongoing divide in the urban-rural
standard of living, a new geographical/regional divide
emerged in the late 1990s. Poverty was found predominantly
among less-educated individuals, particularly those working
in agriculture and construction, and among seasonal and
occasional workers. These groups could suffer the most from
the slowing economic growth evident after 1999-2000.
Work-Related Migration and Poverty Reduction in NepalLokshin, Michael; Glinskaya, Elena; Bontch-Osmolovski, Mikhail (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2012-06-05)Using two rounds of nationally
representative household survey data in this study, the
authors measure the impact on poverty in Nepal of local and
international migration for work. They apply an instrumental
variable approach to deal with nonrandom selection of
migrants and simulate various scenarios for the different
levels of work-related migration, comparing observed and
counterfactual household expenditure distribution. The
results indicate that one-fifth of the poverty reduction in
Nepal occurring between 1995 and 2004 can be attributed to
increased levels of work-related migration and remittances
sent home. The authors also show that while the increase in
work migration abroad was the leading cause of this poverty
reduction, internal migration also played an important role.
The findings show that strategies for economic growth and
poverty reduction in Nepal should consider aspects of the
dynamics of domestic and international migration.
Nicaragua - Poverty Assessment : Volume 2. Background PaperWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2012-06-14)Nicaragua is a small, open economy that is vulnerable to external and natural shocks. With an estimated Gross National Income (GNI) per capita of US$1000 in 2006, and a total population of 5.2 million, it is one of the poorest countries in Latin America. Forty six percent of the population lived below the poverty line in 2005 (while 15 percent lived in extreme poverty), and the incidence of poverty is more than twice as high in rural areas (68 percent) than in urban areas (29 percent). Nicaragua's social indicators also rank among the lowest in the region, commensurate with its relatively low per capita income level. Nicaragua's long-term development vision is set out in its National Development Plan (NDP), 2005-2009, which gives greater importance to economic growth than the strategy document that preceded it. This also serves as its second Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS). The goals of the PRS incorporate the MDGs, and establish medium (2006-2010) to long term targets (2015). By 2005, the country had made satisfactory progress on meeting the PRS/MDG targets for reducing extreme poverty, increasing net primary enrollment, and reducing infant and child mortality. This National Development Plan is being revised by the new government that took office on January 2007, which has expressed interest in maintaining policy continuity in those areas that have shown progress and tackling pending development challenges. These include efforts to improve the country's growth performance while reducing poverty, macroeconomic stability as a necessary, although not sufficient, condition to stimulate growth, and reduce poverty, a special focus on social issues that impact the poorest, including the MDGs, and environmental sustainability. Programmatic priorities for the new administration include a renewed focus on poverty reduction using a multi-sector approach, implementing pragmatic solutions to the energy crisis for the short to medium term; expanding water and sanitation services with environmentally sustainable solutions; sharing economic growth more broadly to tackle hunger, malnutrition and poverty; placing greater emphasis on preventive health and continuing social protection programs; extending illiteracy programs and improving education services, and pursuing municipal decentralization, state modernization, and good governance.