Author(s)Robertson, John A.
Clinical Ethics Committees
Mother Fetus Relationship
Research Ethics Committees
Risks and Benefits
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Seminars in Perinatology. 1985 Jul; 9(2): 136-142.
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The World Bank Legal Review, Volume 4 : Legal Innovation and Empowerment for DevelopmentMuller, Sam; Thomas, Chantal; Cissé, Hassane; Wang, Chenguang; Wang, Chenguang; Thomas, Chantal; Muller, Sam; Cissé, Hassane (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2013)The World Bank legal review gathers this input from around the world and compiles it into a useful resource for all development practitioners and scholars. The subtitle of this volume, legal innovation and empowerment for development, highlights how the law can respond to the chal-lenges posed to development objectives in a world slowly emerging from an economic crisis. The focus on innovation is a call for new, imaginative strategies and ways of thinking about what the law can do in the development realm. The focus on empowerment is a deliberate attempt to place the law into the hands of the poor; to give them another tool with which to resist poverty. This volume shows some of the ways that the law can make an innovative and empowering difference in development scenarios. Development problems are complex and varied, and the theme of innovation and empowerment naturally has a broad scope. Consequently, this volume reaches far and wide. It considers the nature, promise, and limitations of legal innovation and legal empowerment. It looks at concrete examples in places such as Africa, the Asia-Pacific region, and Latin America. It considers developments in issues with universal application, such as the rights of the disabled and the effectiveness of asset recovery measures. The theme of legal innovation and empowerment for development complements substantive and institutional sensibilities in current development policy. Substantively, development policy discourse seems to have moved away from tacking hard toward statist policy or neoliberal policy. Although this brief introduction cannot do justice to the richness and complexity of these contributions, it does consider each focal point in turn.
Morocco : Legal and Judicial Sector AssessmentWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-07-09)The overall legal framework in Morocco is not a priority area for reform. The law-making process, however, is weak, resulting in poorly drafted laws, and legal dissemination is inadequate. Legal education relies upon outdated curricula and is offered in competing languages, French and Arabic, the selection of which largely determines students' choices for future employment. The training of legal professionals is minimal and is poorly supervised. The general public has little access to legal information. Legal aid is embryonic and restricted to criminal matters. This assessment of the legal and judicial sector offers recommendations in the areas of case law dissemination, capacity building of the law-making institutions, development of a legal toolkit for judges, redesign of legal studies, training of legal professionals to improve quality, supervision of translators and experts, redirecting the activities of lawyers towards legal advice, expanding the notaries, redesigning court operations, expanding judicial participation on the High Council for the Judiciary and ensuring greater judicial independence, offering professionalized training to the judiciary, including language proficiency as a criteria for recruitment and promotion, obtaining judicial consent for judicial transfers, making public judicial resources, improving the transparency of the inspection process, drafting a code of legal ethics, training for non-judicial appointments, developing court management capacities, improving personnel management, acknowledgment of the profession of registrar, reviewing and enforcing the regulations concerning judicial experts, further decentralizing of the management of the judicial budgets and development of budget management capacity, improving court statistics, upgrading judicial infrastructure, court construction and renovation, overhauling the entire enforcement system, development of public information procedures, improving access of the public to legal information and advice, and enactment of the arbitration code.
The Importance of Comparative Law in Legal Education: United States Goals and Methods of Legal ComparisonsAult, Hugh J.; Glendon, Mary Ann (Digital Commons @ Boston College Law School, 1975-01-01)This Essay discusses the gradual changes occurring within legal education, which are finding wide acceptance in law schools throughout the United States. These changes include greater attention to other disciplines, primarily economics and behavioral sciences, and the contributions they make to a fuller understanding of the legal system. In addition, law schools are increasingly exploring the ways in which the law in textbooks may differ from the law in action. Nearly every law school, therefore, is seriously investigating the social and economic background of legal rules and their consequences through clinical legal education, which attempts to provide a real or simulated laboratory experience for law students. The most pervasive change, however, may be the breaking down of traditional artificial and arbitrary classifications of subject matter, which attempt to provide the advanced student a tentative method for organizing his or her knowledge about the legal system. Therefore, comparative law courses in the law school curriculum have surfaced in an attempt to inspire students to think creatively about legal problems by providing new insights into the legal system. To illustrate their support of this approach, the authors discuss their experience with creating and teaching a comparative law course at Boston College Law School. The Essay provides support for existing literature surrounding comparative law in legal education while illustrating its importance to law school curriculums throughout the United States.