Ethics Review Committees in the Nordic Countries: History, Organization, and Assignments
Author(s)Solbakk, Jan Helge
Regional Ethics Committees
Research Ethics Committees
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HEC (Hospital Ethics Committee) Forum. 1991; 3(4): 215-220.
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Jamaica : Parliamentary Oversight of Public Finances--An Institutional ReviewWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2013-11-14)Sound legislative oversight of public finances is crucial to ensure efficiency and effectiveness of public spending. All national governments, and particularly those that are accountable to their citizens through free elections and the voice of civil society, are concerned with the efficiency and efficacy of public finances. More broadly, well-functioning parliaments promote good governance; enhance transparency and accountability, including for public expenditures and their results; widen public discourse on national priorities and options; and build better partnerships between officials and representatives and their electorate. In all this, those among the citizenry with the least have the most to gain. This report responds to a request from the Government of Jamaica to review the structure and capacity of the Parliament of Jamaica to undertake its constitutional role with respect to oversight of the nation's public finances. Jamaica's Parliament is the country's supreme legislative body, consisting of an elected House of Representatives and an appointed Senate (Upper House), as well as the Queen or her representative, as the ceremonial head, and the Governor General. The Government of Jamaica has amended various legislations to adopt a Fiscal Responsibility Framework (FRF). The FRF includes specific fiscal targets as well as provisions to include the Ministry of Finance (MOF) and public service control over expenditures and lending.
The Rise of Research Ethics Committees in Western Europe: Some Concomitant ProblemsBergkamp, Lucas (2015-05-05)The rise of research ethics committees in Western Europe has accelerated since 1975 when the World Medical Association recommended that protocols for experiments involving human subjects be submitted to independent committees for consideration, comment, and guidance. This article describes the numbers, types, composition, function, authority, and problems of institutional, regional, and national research ethics committees in the Netherlands, Great Britain, West Germany, France, Switzerland, and Sweden. Among the problems are lack of authority to require ethical review, underrepresentation of nonmedical members, inconsistencies in definitions of and standards for human experimentation, and nonconsideration of the rights of investigators as well as subjects. The author urges legislation to strengthen the self regulating mechanism of research ethics committees. (KIE abstract)