Social Citizenship and Disability: Identity, Belonging, and the Structural Organization of Education
Contributor(s)Killoran, Isabel M.
KeywordsSociology of education
Social reproduction of inequality
Social justice in education
Critical disability studies
Programs of choice
History of education
Diversity and education
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AbstractThe framing of disability is an ongoing, negotiated discourse in which participants build upon, challenge, and reject the political, social, economic, and cultural influences that lead to constructions of impairment. Experiences of racialization, poverty, immigration, gender, and sexuality juxtaposed against defined institutionalized norms and dominant narratives speak to how disability is not only conceived but also experienced. Drawing upon transnational and citizenship theory, this thesis proposes employing a new framework of analysis, centralizing the experience of social citizenship and belonging as an indicator of broader structural equity. Situated in the field of education, theoretical considerations also explore how growing market fundamentalism shapes public schools and contributes to the systematic exclusion of poor and racialized students through mechanisms of disablement such as reduced academic programs and special education placement. This body of work includes three separate, but related, studies exploring historical and current incidences of institutional exclusion. In particular, the nuanced relationship of exclusion to race, class, gender, generational status, and sexuality, complicated with the identification of impairment, is explored. One of the most profound findings of this research is that, although there is much discussion in Disability Studies of the construction of impairment labels, this is the first quantitative analysis to substantiate these claims. Results also indicate that the classroom represents the most stratified space in which student groups defined by race, exceptionality, class, and generational status experience the greatest sense of exclusion. Evidence shows that employing a lens of citizenship and belonging is an authoritative tool in identifying the existence of inequities distributed among myriad identity groups. Furthermore, evidence lends credence to the notion that identification of disability is intimately linked to race, gender, and class contexts.
TypeElectronic Thesis or Dissertation
Copyright/LicenseAuthor owns copyright, except where explicitly noted. Please contact the author directly with licensing requests.
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.