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Since the 1990s, the community Construction in China has made great achievements. Community Self-organization as a new variable has played an important role in the community construction. On the one hand, it has shown great significance in stimulating the urban grass-roots social democracy, improving the residents’ self-management, and promoting community self-education, self-service and self-constraints. But on the other hand, it also has faced with a dilemma of lacking of community involvement. While social identity, the fundamental driving factors of the residents’ participation, has made a great affection on improving the development of community self-organization. In that case, research on the relationship between residents’ social identity and community self-organizing has the theoretical and practical significance. Therefore, based on questionnaire survey of the National Science Fund Project “Social Construction under the Perspective of Social Quality”, the author carry out research on the status of community self-organizing capacity-building and analyze the relationship between residents’ social identity and community self-organizing capacity-building from the community level and society level by focusing on residents’ identity, emotional identity and group identity. The research suggests that community self-organizing capacity -building is at a basic level and residents' social identity has an important influence on community self-organizing capacity building. Firstly, residents' social identity, including community identity and public identity, has a positive role in promoting community self-organizing capacity-building. Especially the community pride of residents not only helps to improve the community self-organizing capacity, but also is conducive to cultivate the emotional basis for the community self-organization. Secondly, residents' emotional identity also plays an active role in the community self-organizing capacity-building. From point view of the residents’ community emotional identity, the higher is community satisfaction, the stronger is community self-organizing capacity-building. From point view of the residents' social emotional identity, residents’ social trusting plays an important role in building the community self-organizing capacity. First of all, the trust in non-governmental organizations of the residents is conducive to nurture the emotional foundations of community self-organization; secondly, the special and general interpersonal trust of residents can effectively promote the development of Community self-organizing capacity-building. Thirdly, residents’ social group identity is closely related to the community self-organizing capacity building. For instance, interested group identity and religious group identity have a positive effect on community self-organizing capacity-building, and career group identity is conducive to cultivate the emotional foundations of community self-organization. Therefore, the research suggests that construction of community self-organizing should starts with capacity building and emotional construction, and fostering the social identity of the residents is the key of community self-organizing capacity-building.