從國際人權法論少數群體與原住民族設置學校體系之發展策略 The Strategies for Establishing Minority Groups’ and Indigenous Peoples’ School System Based on the International Human Right Law
minority’s right to education
indigenous school system
indigenous peoples' right to education
國international human right law
Theory and practice of education
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Abstract《聯合國原住民族權利宣言》在進一步成為「公約」之前，原住民族教育權利在國際人權法中仍類同於相關公約所建構出的「保護屬於少數群體之個人的權利」。我國教育部依據《原住民族教育法》有設置原住民族學校體系的相關政策規劃，但尚未能落實。本研究在「保護屬於少數群體之個人的權利」的基礎上，探討馬來西亞華文教育、印度與歐洲穆斯林學校、紐西蘭毛利語沉浸式小學、美國夏威夷州夏威夷語沉浸式小學與卡美哈美哈學校、北歐三國的薩米學校等實例，瞭解世界上族裔、語言、宗教少數群體與原住民如何建立學校體系，藉以釐清臺灣設置原住民族學校的可能策略。研究結果發現：政治行動與經濟條件等因素影響設置民族學校教育自決權的實踐；私立或公辦民營的民族學校皆應實施國定課程綱要以納入正規學制；原住民地區的公立學校可依族語文化融入課程程度予以分級；民族學校之入學資格不得限定學生的族群背景，而須由家長自由選擇。The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples need to be further transformed into convention to firmly established the right of self-determination and the rights to education, including the right to establish their own school system. Indigenous Peoples’ rights protected by the international law remains resemble those of individuals belonging to minority groups. This study reviews the examples of minority groups of Chinese Education System in Malaysia and of Muslim private schools in India and Europe. Indigenous schools are also reviewed, including Maori immersion schools in New Zealand, Hawaiian immersion schools and Kamehameha Schools in Hawaii, and Sami schools in Scandinavia.The finding are as followings: The political action of the minority or indigenous groups is the key to establish or maintain school systems; Private schools and private managing public schools should adopt national curriculum to be incorporated into national school system; Public schools in indigenous areas should be classified based on the extent of incorporating ethnic language and culture; The admission policy must be based on parents’ free choice rather than students’ ethnic background.