桃園地區開漳聖王信仰之研究 ─以大溪仁和宮為例; A Study on the Faith in Kaizhang Shengwang of the People in Taoyuan County:Take the Renhe Temple in Daxi Town as an Example
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Abstract[[abstract]]本文以清乾隆年間到民國一百年大溪埔頂仁和宮的發展過程為研究主軸，探討桃園地區開漳聖王信仰的情況。本文從開發歷史與人文背景、廟宇之沿革與宗教活動、地方社會發展之影響與分香子廟分布狀況等面向切入，希望藉此了解開漳聖王傳布的脈絡。 開發歷史與人文背景方面，受到地理環境的影響，仁和宮所處的河西地區為大溪較早開發的區域。大溪早期為原住民之聚居地，後來隨著漢人的進墾，為了獲取經濟資源與擴展生存空間，他們逐漸往河東地區拓墾。閩粵人口比例也因拓墾而高出原住民許多，大溪地區以閩籍中的漳州府移民佔優勢，故居民信奉開漳聖王成為理所當然之現象。 廟宇之沿革與宗教活動方面，仁和宮創建的時間最早應在乾隆四十年，早期由「管理人」掌理有關廟宇的一切事務，民國七十四年成立財團法人，管理組織正式走向制度化。此外信徒認為昔稱「三王公」之神即今日的開漳聖王，不過從資料顯示，兩者似乎非為同一神。主神開漳聖王聖誕為整年最盛大、最熱鬧的祭祀活動，後來廟方為了減省開銷，避免造成不必要的浪費，於是將開漳聖王聖誕提前於元月十四日與天上聖母合併慶祝。 地方社會發展之影響方面，仁和宮之所以運作至今，香火仍不斷傳播，其主要原因則與地方菁英的參與、互動密切相關。其中以四大柱「江有源」、「趙盛隆」、「王太原」、「蕭合成」以及藍姓委員與仁和宮關係最密切，影響亦最大。而上述五大家族，分屬客家人、閩南人、原住民與畬族，打破了「閩南人才拜開漳聖王」的觀念。另外，仁和宮不但提供人們祈福、求心安的心理慰藉與信仰寄託，廟中的建築與紋飾同時也具有教化人心的功能。 仁和宮的分香子廟包括了大溪的福仁宮、瑞源宮、東興宮，桃園的景福宮與大園的五福宮、福隆宮，以及復興鄉的復興宮、聖興宮。分布範圍以北桃園為主，不過在客家人聚集的南桃園地區，亦可見到主祀開漳聖王的廟宇。此現象顯示，開漳聖王信仰在桃園地區應是跨越族群的。 This paper focuses on the development of Renhe Temple in Puding, Daxi Town during the years from Qianlong Emperor’s reign to 2011, and discusses the faith in Kaizhang Shengwang of people in Taoyuan district. This study deals with this topic from several perspectives: the history of this temple's construction, its cultural background, the reformation of this temple, the influence of religious activities and local social development and the distribution of its branch temples, aiming at giving a clue of the development of the faith in Kaizhang Shengwang. Renhe Temple’s history of construction and its cultural background are influenced by its geographical conditions: Hexi district where Renhe Temple is located in is developed earlier than other districts in Daxi. Indigenous people in Taiwan used to settle in Daxi as the entry of Chinese people, these indigenous people gradually moved to Hedong district, to exploit more economic resources and explore their living space. As a result, there were a larger number of Chinese people from Fujian Province and Guangdong Province in Hexi district. Immigrants from Zhangzhou, Fujian Province especially took a dominant status in Daxi, making local people’s faith in Kaizhang Shengwang a logical phenomenon. As for the reformation of the temple and its related religious activities, Renhe Temple should be built no earlier than 1775. The manager in charge of all the issues in Renhe temple was a “supervisor”, which was replaced by a legal person set in 1985, making its management more systematic. Besides, although some believers believe that the deity named “San Wanggong” was an old alternative name of Kaizhang Shengwang, according to current information at hand, these two figures should not be the same one. The birthday celebration of Kaizhang Shengwang was the grandest and most pupular religious festival during the whole year for the temple. Then it was combined with the celebration of Tianshang Shengmu and celebrated earlier in January 14 so as to save budget for the temple and avoid unnecessary waste. As for the effect of local social development, the successful operation and continuous distribution of Renhe Temple should be attributed to the participation and close interaction of local elites in Daxi. Four big families, Jiang Youyuan, Zhao Shenglong, Wang Taiyuan and Xiao Hecheng as well as the committee members from Lan’s family had the closest relationship with Renhe Temple and played the most important roles in its development. These five families contained Hakka people, Fujian people, indigenous people and people from She nationality, which made them a counter-example of the stereotype that “only Fujian people believe in Kaizhang Shengwang”. Besides, the functions of Renhe Temple are not only offering a place for prayers and giving consolation for them, its decorations can also civilize local people. The branch temples of Renhe Temple include Furen Temple, Ruiyuan Temple and Dongxing Temple in Daxi Town, Jingfu Temple in Taoyuan County, Wufu Temple, Fulong Temple in Dayuan Town, and Fuxing Temple, Shengxing Temple in Fuxing Town. They are mainly distributed in northern Taoyuan however, there are also some branch temples in southern Taoyuan where Hakka people live. This phenomenon is an evidence that the faith in Kaizhang Shengwang of People in Taoyuan County can be found in people of different groups.