Missionary women : gender, professionalism and the Victorian idea of Christian mission
Author(s)Semple, Rhonda Anne (1966-)
KeywordsWomen in missionary work -- Great Britain -- History
Protestant churches -- Great Britain -- Missions -- History
Women in missionary work -- Himalaya Mountains Region -- History
Missions, British -- Himalaya Mountains Region -- History
Women in missionary work -- China -- History
Missions, British -- China -- History
London Missionary Society
China Inland Mission
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十九世纪倫敦會傳教士在滬港兩地活動之研究(1843-1860).俞強.; Chinese University of Hong Kong Graduate School. Division of History.; Yu, Qiang. (2006)After the establishment of the mission stations in Hong Kong and Shanghai, the missionaries of LMS began to undertake several mission activities such as building churches, education, translation and publishing activities and medical missions. Chapter 4, 5 will introduce the missionary activities, such as education, publish and Bible translation that engaged in the Anglo-Chinese College of Hong Kong and the LMS Press of Shanghai. Based on these facts, I will expose the role of LMS missionaries in the Sino-western culture conflict and exchange, and the Christian mission indigenization in China.
Reaching the unreached Sudan Belt : Guinness, Kumm and the Sudan-Pioneer-MissionFiedler, Klaus, Dr.; Reimer, J.; Sauer, Christof, 1963- (2009-08-25)This missiological project seeks to study the role of the Guinnesses and Kumms in reaching the
Sudan Belt, particularly through the Sudan-Pionier-Mission (SPM) founded in 1900.
The term Sudan Belt referred to Africa between Senegal and Ethiopia, at that period one of the
largest areas unreached by Christian missionaries. Grattan Guinness (1835-1910) at that time was
the most influential promoter of faith missions for the Sudan. The only initiative based in
Germany was the SPM, founded by Guinness, his daughter Lucy (1865-1906), and her German husband
Karl Kumm (1874-1930). Kumm has undeservedly been forgotten, and his early biography as a
missionary and explorer in the deserts of Egypt is here brought to light again.
The early SPM had to struggle against opposition in Germany. Faith missions were
considered unnecessary, and missions to Muslims untimely by influential representatives of
classical missions. The SPM was seeking to reach the Sudan Belt via the Nile from Aswan. The most
promising figure for this venture was the Nubian Samuel Ali Hiseen (1863-1927), who accomplished a
scripture colportage tour through Nubia. Unfortunately, he was disregarded by the first German
missionary, Johannes Kupfemagel (1866-1937).
When the SPM failed to reach the Sudan Belt due to political restrictions, Kumm and the
SPM board were divided in their strategies. Kumm planned to pursue a new route via the Niger River,
seeking support in Great Britain rather independently. The SPM, holding on to Aswan, dismissed
Kumm, and began to decline until it made a new start in 1905, but for a long time remained a
local mission work in Upper Egypt. The Sudan United Mission however, founded by the Kumms in 1904,
did indeed reach the Sudan Belt.
An analysis of the SPM reveals its strengths and weaknesses. The SPM grew out of the Holiness
movement and shared the urgency, which made faith missions successful, but also was the SPM's
weakness, as it suffered from ill-preparedness. The SPM innovatively gathered together
single women from the nobility in a community of service for missions under its
chairman, Pastor Theodor Ziemendorff (1837-:1912).