HIV, AIDS and gender issues in Indonesia : implications for policy : an application of complexity theory
Author(s)Damar, Alita P.
Contributor(s)Du Plessis, G. E.
KeywordsHIV and AIDS
New Order state ideology
Aids (Disease) -- Indonesia
HIV infections -- Indonesia
Medical care -- Indonesia
Public health -- Indonesia
Communication in public health -- Indonesia
AIDS (Disease) -- Risk factors -- Indonesia
HIV infections -- Risk factors -- Indonesia
Medical policy -- Indonesia
AIDS (Disease) -- Government policy -- Indonesia
AIDS (Disease) -- Indonesia -- Prevention
HIV infections -- Indonesia -- Prevention
Indonesia -- Social conditions
Indonesia -- Economic aspects
Community health services -- Indonesia
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AbstractThe aim of the study was to offer solutions for the enhancement of Indonesia’s HIV
and AIDS policy and to suggest future possibilities. In the process, the gendered
nature of the epidemic was explored. In light of the relatively lower rates of
employment among Indonesian women, this study also sought to gain insights into
the possible reasons for many women appearing to be attached to domesticity.
In the first phase of the study, interviews with stakeholders in HIV and AIDS
prevention were conducted, followed by a Delphi exercise involving 23 HIV and
AIDS experts. In the second phase, 28 women from various ethnicities were
interviewed, including those in polygamous and contract marriages. The overall
results were interpreted through the lens of complexity theory.
Fewer than half of the proposed objectives were approved by the experts in the
Delphi round. These were interventions mainly aimed at the risk groups while most
objectives relating to education about HIV and AIDS and safer sex for the general
public failed to obtain consensus. Reasons for the lack of consensus were
differences in perceptions associated with human rights, moral reasoning, the
unfeasibility of certain statements and personal conviction about the control of the epidemic. Emphasis on men’s and women’s innate characteristics; men’s role as
breadwinner; women’s primary role as wife, mother and educator of their children;
and unplanned pregnancies emerged as major themes from the qualitative phase.
While the adat and Islam revival movements may have endorsed the ideals of the
New Order state ideology, Javanese rituals regarded as violating Islam teachings
were abandoned. Ignorance about safer sex and HIV and AIDS was also established. Interpretation of the results through the lens of complexity theory revealed that the
national HIV and AIDS policy needs to encompass interventions for the general
population, which would include comprehensive sex education in schools and
media campaigns focusing on women. It was found that women’s vulnerability to
HIV and their penchant for domesticity appear to be associated with their
perceived primary role as wife and mother, as promoted by the adat-based New Order state ideology.
D. Litt. et Phil. (Sociology)
Damar, Alita P. (2014) HIV, AIDS and gender issues in Indonesia : implications for policy : an application of complexity theory, University of South Africa, Pretoria, <http://hdl.handle.net/10500/18691>
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