Light and Perception of safety in-between buildings : The role of lighting in perception of safety from a female perspective in in-between spaces of residential areas
in-between space of residential area
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AbstractThis thesis will investigate the relationship between lighting and perception of safety through a case study. The main focus of this study is outdoor lighting with consideration of gender equality and perception of safety. Although street lighting is generally recognized as the most important environmental features that influences subjective perception of safety after dark, there is still lack of knowledge regarding the needed quality of light for this purpose and how it may influence perceived safety. Literature review indicates that effect of light on perceived safety works through two different mechanisms: natural surveillance and social integration. The main focus of this thesis is on natural surveillance. Indeed, light by increasing visibility in interaction with presence of people, enhance possibilities of natural surveillance. Based on literature review, a tool has been developed to have a more specific examination of visibility.Besides, the women’s safety audit (WSA) diagnostic tool is used as a qualitative data collection tool to identify unsafe spots in the chosen area by 10 local female participants. The chosen area is a residential area in Eskilstuna city, called Årby neighbourhood. All the participants were asked to determine unsafe spots from their perspective in the chosen area during an exploratory night walk. In the next step, the identified unsafe spots are analysed by means of the developed tool in terms of visibility.The result of this thesis supports the previous findings regarding the relationship between visibility and safety perception. Results show that urban settings with low level of prospect (obstructed view), high level of entrapment (escape difficulty), high level of concealment (lots of hiding spots), lack of illuminated visual spatial boundaries (sky plane, vertical plane and ground plane), low level of facial recognition and obstacle detection, low level of illumination of path, high level of glare and varied lighting distribution are judged as the most unsafe by women. In addition, the study revealed that illuminated ground plane has the minimum impact on sense of safety in comparison with other safety-related environmental factors. Consequently, this study highlighted that standards and guidelines, which are related to ground plane, are not very beneficial for improving perception of safety.
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Equity in traffic light control: Identifying- and measuring equity traffic light control. A case study to improve equity at the intersection A050 in Deventer for intelligent Traffic Light Controller: Flowtackvan Lint, J.W.C. (mentor); Annema, J.A. (mentor); Hegyi, A. (mentor); Verkaik-Poelman, M.C. (mentor); Jesus, Marson (mentor); Hut, Gert (mentor); Delft University of Technology (degree granting institution); Hendriks, Onno (author) (2021-06-22)A new generation of intelligent Traffic Light Controllers uses Model Predictive Control to minimise delay at signalised intersections. The conventional cycle of set sequences of green phases is dropped for optimisation purposes. This research uses the ethical theories utilitarianism, egalitarianism, sufficientarianism &amp; deontology to define equity. An explicit connection of these ethical theories and technical principles of conventional traffic light controller CCOL &amp; new generation traffic light controller Flowtack, has been provided to identify the change in ethical landscape, from predominantly egalitarian towards relatively utilitarian. Performance indicators for equity in traffic control are defined based on earlier research. Multiple setting changes in Flowtack are proposed and tested in simulation experiments with Aimsun. These experiments show that adjusting Flowtack's objective function can improve the equity scores according to egalitarianism &amp; sufficientarianism, at the cost of the equity score of utilitarianism. The best results are validated using various flow compositions on an alternative intersection. As a result, the gain in equity by the proposed settings becomes greater, as the flow composition becomes more uneven.
"Perceiving Light from Light in Light" (Oration 31.2): The Trinitarian Theology of St. Gregory the TheologianMcGuckin, John A. (1994)At the end of the fourth century, the work of saint Athanasios had moved the great debate in Christianity concerning the nature of God towards a new context. A greater degree of agreement about the nature and divine status of the Son could now be presumed after the reconciliation between the homoousians and the homoiousians. Events such as the Synod of Alexandria of 362 show that there was a movement to clarify the terminology of the argument in the cause of this reconciliation. The residual body of Arians were consequently becoming more sharply distinguished, and their theological systems stood out in harder relief, as might be witnessed in the rationalist method of Eunomios or Aetios. Athanasios' theology, after the Council of Nicaea, had initiated a growing body of opinion among the hierarchs that the generic meaning of the Logos as homoousios with the Father, in the sense of having the same generic quality (or even being of "the same stuff"), was a crudely materialist concept inapplicable to a wholly spiritual and simple nature, and that by contrast the true meaning of the homoousion was not merely generic identity, or even "likeness of being" as the Origenistic homoiousians liked to say (following their teacher's much earlier objections to the application of qualitative epithets to God), but rather very identity of being.
Scientific Creativity in Light of Artistic Spirit 1 Running Head: SCIENTIFIC CREATIVITY IN LIGHT OF ARTISTIC SPIRIT Scientific Creativity in Light of Artistic Spirit: A Preliminary Literature Review on the Concepts of Intuition and BeautyThe Pennsylvania State University CiteSeerX Archives; Krista Fogel (2008-07-01)The purpose of this paper is to investigate scientific creativity in light an artistic spirit. As such, history’s eminent scientists reveal that indeed there is an artistic component to scientific creativity of high ability. In this paper, that component is considered in light of the concept of “extracognition ” with particular reference to intuition and beauty. Through a systematic review of the literature, three shared themes of intuition and beauty are derived. These are: a) making connections beyond consciousness, b) holism, and c) emotional response. These themes are then explored in light of practice in science education. Israel Arts and Science Academy is touched on as a relevant example particularly in terms of holism, creativity, and moral goodness. Finally, some practical suggestions are made in the area of education for bringing to life an artistic spirit in the science classroom. Scientific Creativity in Light of Artistic Spirit 3 “As between science and art, the priority developmentally seems to rest with art, this being the more immediate and intuitive ground from which the rationalistic and generalizing scientific meanings subsequently develop ” (Phenix quoted in Innamorato, 1998, p.5).