Armspan and Halfspan as Alternatives for Height in Adults: A Sample From Ghana
Author(s)Tayie, FAK; Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University
Agyekum, S; Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana
Owusu-Ahenkora, M; Department of Nutrition and Food Science, University of Ghana
Busolo, D; HelpAge International- African Regional Development Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
Adjetey-Sorsey, E; HelpAge Ghana
Armah, J; Nutrition Division, Ministry of Health - Ghana
Imaya, E; HelpAge International- African Regional Development Centre, Nairobi, Kenya
KeywordsBody mass index
Indexe de la masse corporelle
envergure des bras
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AbstractThe suitability of armspan and halfspan as alternatives for height in BMI (body mass index) calculation was studied using a sample of 761 Ghanaians. Armspan looks promising as a substitute for height in elderly persons and others whose height cannot be obtained. Our confidence to assess nutritional status of older persons using regular BMI cut-off limits developed for younger adults is limited by the senescent changes that occur during ageing. Weight, height, armspan and halfspan were measured to obtain anthropometric data which enabled the development of regression equations that can be used to predict height. Background data were collected via one-on-one interview using a study-specific semi-structured questionnaire. Results showed that armspan significantly correlated with height in both males (r = 0.85) and females (r = 0.86) (P
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Promoting pupil’s participation in the study of mathematics: A case study of selected junior high school pupils in Maakro Methodist church of Ghana; Ashanti region of GhanaKusi, Philipa (VID vitenskapelige høgskole. Oslo, 2021-10-25)Described as basic requirement and a compulsory subject, Mathematics has been the biggest challenge for most pupils in the African countries and to be more precise Ghana as a country. Continuous research shows/ proves pupils’ poor performance in Mathematics as compared with other subjects. This study aims to answer the question ‘How has the Methodist church at Maakro Circuit, in Kumasi, Ghana, used their after-school programme to promote pupils’ interest and abilities in Mathematics?’. The research explores the impact and nature of after-school programme on pupils’ performance in Mathematics and how the Methodist church is an instrument to empowering pupils. Diakonia and Empowerment in Mathematics, Motivation and sociocultural theory are three theoretical frameworks for this thesis. Some related concepts like teaching methods are also used in this thesis. These theories and related concepts explore how the Methodist church at Maakro is responding to pupils’ interest and abilities in Mathematics in the Ghanaian context. The research was conducted with the help of interviews with nine (9) participants; Methodist church leaders (Ministers), facilitators as well as earlier pupils who were privileged to be part of the after-school programme. Also, observation was done by the researcher for more information on the grounds. The findings gathered were grouped into three themes: Importance of Mathematics, teaching methods and attitudes of teachers, and teaching materials and equipment. These were analysed thematically, interpreted, and discussed in relation to the theoretical framework. The study reveals that the themes were the basis for promoting pupils´ interest, participation, and improvement in Mathematics. The study has emphasized that activity method of teaching which serve to engage pupils’ full participation was ensured to increase pupils’ interest in mathematics. From a diaconal perspective one can say that the professionals in the church are doing diaconal work; showing extra love, care, and selfless services to meet both their academic and social needs among all the pupils. The support been given is backed by their faith as Christians. Also, the extra love, care and patience demonstrated by professional teachers in the church inspired and motivate some pupils to improve in mathematics and continued their education in mathematics. ii The study concludes with recommendations, for example the church should extend the after school programme to all basic school pupils in the church and to the community.
The Speargrass (Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv.) menace in Ghana: Incidence, farmer perceptions and control practices in the forest and forest-Savanna transition Agro-ecological Zones of GhanaAG Carson; DG Shilling; GEK Bolfrey-Arku; CC Coultas; OU Onokpise (West African Journal of Applied Ecology, 2009-09-04)Surveys to determine farmers’ practices, perceptions and the incidence of speargrass were conducted in the forest and forest-savanna transition zones of Ghana in 1996 and 2000. Mean farm size was 1.2 ha, fallow and cropping length was 4.7 and 4.5 years, respectively, with a mean cropping intensity factor (CIF) of 49%. Speargrass had been present in the area for over 40 years and was perceived as the most noxious weed. Eighty- six percent of fields that relied on slash-burn method of land preparation had severe speargrass infestation. Infestations > 50% cover, mean density of 33 plants m-2 and shoot height range of 15–300 cm were observed on 60% of the fields. Fifty-one percent of farmers reported of inadequate level of control with current control practices. Glyphosate was applied onfields with > 50% speargrass cover. Speargrass becomes a problem after 3 years continuous cropping from fallow and, under severe infestation, most farmers abandon fields to natural fallow. A dense regrowth of Chromolaenaodorata is indicative of a speargrass-suppressed field. Follow-up weed control could be 3-6 times/season depending on initial land preparation, type of crop and/or level of infestation. Cost of weed control was 20–60% higher on speargrass-infested field ($71/weeding/ha) than on other fields, and weeding may take 20–25 mandays/ha. Farmers perceived average yield losses of 30–80% ha–1 due to speargrass interference, implying anational average crop loss ha-1 of $31–$84, $155–$414 and $272–$727 for maize, cassava and yam systems, respectively. Reductions in food quality due to the piercing nature of the rhizomes was also paramount.
Private Returns on Education in Ghana: Estimating the Effects of Education on Employability in GhanaAsafu-Adjaye, P (CODESRIA, 2013-04-22)The relevance of education for both individual and social development in Ghana and in many developing societies is generally acknowledged. Human capital theorists identify positive effects of education on labour market outcomes of individuals. It has been argued that educationenhances the skills and knowledge of individuals for better employment, higher productivity and improved wages. This paper draws on the latest and most comprehensive survey data in Ghana, the fifth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 5), to assess the effects of education on employability in Ghana. This paper argues that education has a positive effect on employability in Ghana. Analysis of the GLSS 5 data shows that in the Ghanaian labour market, individuals who have attained basic, secondary and tertiary education have higher probabilities of being employed than those with no education, ceteris paribus. However, thehighest private returns on education, in terms of employability is tertiary education. Hence optimal post primary education investment in Ghana is one with a high possibility for tertiary education.