KeywordsResearch and Experimental Aircraft
Military Forces and Organizations
BOOSTER ROCKET ENGINES
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
ARPA(ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY)
MILITARY SPACE PROGRAM
NASA(NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION)
RUSSIAN SPACE PROGRAM
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AbstractCovering the efforts of the United States from 1945 to September 1959 to wrestle with the unknown ramifications of space, this history includes both the civilian and military activities. An Air Force History of Space Activities presents a more detailed treatment of information published in 1960 under the title of Threshold of Space, 1945-1959. Other monographs on this subject include The Air Force in Space, 1959-1960, and (in draft) a sequel for fiscal year 1961. The author of this history begins with the work of the early pioneers in rocketry, the first satellite feasibility studies by the military, and the relationship of the ballistic missile to the space vehicle. He reviews the Russian and U.S. space programs between 1945 and 1957, during which efforts were made to create space law and the United States chose to pursue a space-for-peace policy. The conservatism of policy makers raised obstacles, but there were space projects, some of them under the Air Force. After the shock of Sputnik I, the reshaping of policy resulted in the establishment of ARPA in the Department of Defense and NASA as the civilian space agency. The authors tells of ARPA's supremacy over the military services in 1958; its loss of control to NASA in October 1958; NASA's activities from then until July 1959; the position of the Air Force after losing out to both ARPA and NASA; and the Air Force's determination to cooperate with NASA, through research, development, and the use of its facilities. Within the DoD in 1959, authority for space research and development was transferred from ARPA to DDR&E, interservice tension mounted, the Air Force struggled to regain lost projects and objected to Navy's appeal for a military space command, and the tide turned for the Air Force when the Secretary of Defense decided in September to give to it the responsibility for the development and launching of all DoD space boosters and for management of Sentry, Midas, and Discoverer.
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The Air Force in Space, Fiscal Year 1962DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE WASHINGTON DC HISTORICAL DIV LIAISON OFFICE; Berger, Carl (1966-06)The Air Force in Space, Fiscal Year 1962, discusses the highlights of USAF policy and program planning to obtain support from the administration, Congress, and the Secretary of Defense for a larger role in national space activities. Also included are significant actions taken and milestones reached in individual projects sponsored or supported by the Air Force during the period between 1 July 1961 and 30 June 1962. This historical monograph is the fifth in a series on USAF space activities prepared by the USAF Historical Division Liaison Office.
The Path Taken...Army Space Technology BeginningsARMY SPACE AND MISSILE DEFENSE COMMAND/ARMY FORCES STRATEGIC COMMAND HUNTSVILLE AL; Kerstiens, Bernard (2003)Department of Defense (DoD) Space efforts can be divided into four basic areas: Space support, force enhancements, Space control, and Space applications. In each of these key areas, the Army has a rich history and has made significant contributions. Space Support - it does take a rocket scientist. Collectively, the technologies required to achieve and sustain Space operations in orbit are referred to as Space support. This includes the launch, tracking, control, and satellite bus. The Army's historical role in Space support is probably the one most often chronicled. The Army's development of launch capabilities by the Von Braun team at Redstone Arsenal, Ala., is the best known. The Army Ordnance Corps started long-range surface-to-surface guided-missile research with Cal Tech in a remote area outside of Pasadena, Calif., in May 1944. These facilities were the beginnings of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In less than a year, the contract for the Hermes project was given to General Electric and in February 1945, Bell Laboratories received a contract for the Nike project. These two missiles became the progenitors of many of the Army's contributions to the application of "rocket science."