Volunteer Military Forces Provide Homeland Security Around the World
Author(s)Bankus, Brent C.
Contributor(s)ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA
KeywordsHumanities and History
Military Forces and Organizations
SEARCH AND RESCUE
FIRST WORLD WAR
SECOND WORLD WAR
*STATE DEFENSE FORCES
*VOLUNTEER MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS
SDF(STATE DEFENSE FORCES)
DICK ACT OF 1903
NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT OF 1916
HOME GUARD ACT OF 1940
STATE MILITARY RESERVES
NORWEGIAN HOME GUARD
DANISH HOME GUARD
SWEDISH HOME GUARD
INDIAN TERRITORIAL ARMY
CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION
CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS
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AbstractWith the high Operations Tempo (OPTEMPO) in the current world environment, in addition to the United States, other nations are also experiencing a reduction in force while mission requirements are on the increase (e.g., homeland security). However, a shortage in troop strength does not mitigate the requirement to maintain security with the many and varied nonstate actors who remain a serious danger to the world at large. In addition, local, state, and Federal first responders are also challenged as mission requirements dictate an ever-widening range of contingencies of natural and man-made disasters ranging from floods, hurricanes, or a large significant event (e.g., the September 11, 2001 attacks) in addition to the threat of Weapons of Mass Destruction. To add troop strength, both the United States and other countries are again calling on their "Home Guard" and other Volunteer Military Organizations (VMOs) as augmentation forces. Along with the federally sponsored U.S. Coast Guard Auxiliary and U.S. Air Force Civil Air Patrol, there are states within the nation that have an active U.S. Code Title 32 authorized "Home Guard" or State Defense Force (SDF) unit and several with active Naval Militias (22 states and Puerto Rico). These VMOs, much like their predecessors during World Wars I and II, have a specific focus on homeland security and other skill sets to assist the first responder community. This paper presents the history, missions, and organizational structure of the U.S. Home Guard, or State Defense Force; the Canadian Rangers; the Norwegian Home Guard; the Danish Home Guard; the Swedish Home Guard; and the Indian Territorial Army.
See also ADA494467. Published in the State Defense Force Monograph Series, v3, p5-16, Fall 2007 (Special Units). Creative Commons Attribution License. The original document contains color images.
Copyright/LicenseApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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State Defense Forces, an Untapped Homeland Defense AssetARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA; Bankus, Brent C. (2005)Since the September 11, 2001 attacks on New York City and Washington DC, a comprehensive Federal Government review of homeland security and homeland defense has led to a massive effort to coordinate assets at the local, state, and federal levels. Yet, little has been written about expanding the use of State Defense Forces (SDFs), who continue to play an important but unheralded role in defending the homeland. The SDFs trace their roots to the Colonial militia. Subsequent to the American Revolution, the Founding Fathers attempted to institutionalize their distrust for a large standing active force by depending on local militia units as the first line of defense. This idea was abandoned due to defense requirements for an expanding nation. As an alternative, in 1789 Congress granted special permission to maintain a small military force autonomous of state control with the understanding that it would be used as augmentation for emergencies. The Militia Act of 1792 was the first attempt to regulate militias. Militia units served on numerous occasions throughout the 19th and early 20th centuries. But while well meaning, the Militia Act was never widely enforced and unit effectiveness varied. In response to these problems, in 1903 Congressman Charles Dick sponsored legislation that granted Federal recognition to the land forces of the organized militia, designating them the "National Guard" (NG). NG units augmented Federal forces for the Mexican Border Campaign in 1916, and were soon reactivated in preparation for WWI. With their NG forces federalized, States found themselves ill-prepared to provide a replacement force to accomplish traditional state missions. Passage of the National Defense Act of 1916 provided them cursory authority to do so. This paper briefly reviews the role of the State Guard as NG replacement units during WWI, WWII, Korean War, and Cold War. The paper also reviews SDF missions, capabilities, force levels, funding, cost-effectiveness, and training.
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