Max Weber e as ciências especializadas: o exemplo da história econômica da Antiguidade Max Weber and the specialized sciences: the example of the economic history of Antiquity
Max Weber Gesamtausgabe
Max Weber Gesamtausgabe
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AbstractO artigo investiga como a história econômica da Antiguidade aparece na obra de Max Weber e qual papel a Antiguidade exerce em seu pensamento. Para tanto, discute também qual o estatuto da história no pensamento de Weber, e como isso se relaciona com o conjunto das disciplinas acadêmicas de sua época. Além disso, procura-se indicar como Weber se situava entre as diversas disciplinas e como diferentes debates e polêmicas informaram a sua reflexão.<br>The article investigates how the economic history of Antiquity appears in the work of Max Weber and the role played by Antiquity in his thought. It also therefore discusses the status of history in Weber's thought and how this related to the academic disciplines of his period as a whole. In addition the article seeks to show how Weber was situated among the diverse disciplines and how different debates and polemics informed his approach.
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An Introduction to Modern Astrophysics<vcard>BEGIN:vCard\nVERSION:3.0\nFN:Bradley W. Carroll\nTITLE:\nORG:Weber University\nADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;Department of Physics, Weber State University;2508 University Circle;Ogden;UT;84408-2508;US\nTEL;TYPE=Business:+801/626-7921\nTEL;TYPE=:+\nTEL;TYPE=FAX:+801/626-7445\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,Personal:firstname.lastname@example.org\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,:\nEND:vCard</vcard>; <vcard>BEGIN:vCard\nVERSION:3.0\nFN:Dale A. Ostlie\nTITLE:\nORG:Weber University\nADR;TYPE=WORK,POSTAL,PARCEL:;;College of Science, Weber State University;2501 University Circle;Ogden;UT;84408-2508;US\nTEL;TYPE=Business:+801/626-6201\nTEL;TYPE=:+\nTEL;TYPE=FAX:+801/626-7445\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,Personal:email@example.com\nEMAIL;TYPE=INTERNET,:\nEND:vCard</vcard>This text presents modern astrophysics using the basic tools of physics. The text can be used for a course in stellar structure and evolution, with additional material on the solar system, galactic structure, dynamics, evolution, and cosmology.
Effects of social sustainability signals on neural valuation signals and taste-experience of food productsLaura eEnax; Laura eEnax; Laura eEnax; Vanessa eKrapp; Vanessa eKrapp; Vanessa eKrapp; Alexandra ePiehl; Alexandra ePiehl; Alexandra ePiehl; Bernd eWeber; et al. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2015-09-01)Value-based decision making occurs when individuals choose between different alternatives and place a value on each alternative and its attributes. Marketing actions frequently manipulate product attributes, by adding e.g., health claims on the packaging. A previous imaging study found that an emblem for organic products increased willingness to pay (WTP) and activity in the ventral striatum (VS). The current study investigated neural and behavioral processes underlying the influence of Fair Trade (FT) labeling on food valuation and choice. Sustainability is an important product attribute for many consumers, with FT signals being one way to highlight ethically sustainable production. Forty participants valuated products in combination with an FT emblem or no emblem and stated their WTP in a bidding task while in an MRI scanner. After that, participants tasted – objectively identical – chocolates, presented either as FT or as conventionally produced. In the fMRI task, WTP was significantly higher for FT products. FT labeling increased activity in regions important for reward-processing and salience, that is, in the VS, anterior and posterior cingulate, as well as superior frontal gyrus. Subjective value, that is, WTP was correlated with activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). We find that the anterior cingulate, VS and superior frontal gyrus exhibit task-related increases in functional connectivity to the vmPFC when an FT product was evaluated, suggesting a network which alters valuation processes. We also found a significant taste-placebo effect, with higher experienced taste pleasantness and intensity for FT labeled chocolates. Our results reveal a possible neural mechanism underlying valuation processes of certified food products. The results are important in light of understanding current marketing trends as well as designing future interventions that aim at positively influencing food choice.
The dopaminergic reward system underpins gender differences in social preferencesSoutschek, Alexander; Burke, Christopher J; Raja Beharelle, Anjali; Schreiber, Robert; Weber, Susanna C; Karipidis, Iliana I; ten Velden, Jolien; Weber, Bernd; Haker, Helene; Kalenscher, Tobias; et al. (Nature Publishing Group, 2017)Women are known to have stronger prosocial preferences than men, but it remains an open question as to how these behavioural differences arise from differences in brain functioning. Here, we provide a neurobiological account for the hypothesized gender difference. In a pharmacological study and an independent neuroimaging study, we tested the hypothesis that the neural reward system encodes the value of sharing money with others more strongly in women than in men. In the pharmacological study, we reduced receptor type-specific actions of dopamine, a neurotransmitter related to reward processing, which resulted in more selfish decisions in women and more prosocial decisions in men. Converging findings from an independent neuroimaging study revealed gender-related activity in neural reward circuits during prosocial decisions. Thus, the neural reward system appears to be more sensitive to prosocial rewards in women than in men, providing a neurobiological account for why women often behave more prosocially than men.