political thought of the Modern Era
politické myšlení novověku
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AbstractThis thesis deals with the concept of democracy in the works of the Dutch philosopher Benedict Spinoza, specifically in his Theologico-Political Treatise and Political Treatise. Spinoza's contribution to the modern political thought is based on the fact that he is one of the first political thinkers claiming that democracy is the best possible form of government. In this thesis, Spinoza's conception of democracy is presented within the context of the period in which his works were written, the events that could have contributed to the forming of his view, and other philosophers whose works influenced his works, directly or indirectly. Furthermore, this paper focuses on the basic elements of Spinoza's philosophy, which forms a coherent systém in which his political philosophy is related to his metaphysical insights. The main part of this paper consists of interpretation of Spinoza's thoughts on democracy in the Theologico-Political Treatise and unfinished Political Treatise. The aim of this thesis is to clarify how Spinoza understands the concept of democracy and the importance of democracy in the context of his works. This thesis also focuses on reasons that led Spinoza to consider democracy the best form of government, and the arguments used to advocate this claim.