Contributor(s)Harris, James A.
Locke, John, 1632-1704
Identity (Philosophical concept)
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AbstractJohn Locke claims both that ‘person’ is a forensic term and that personal identity consists in sameness of consciousness. The aim of my dissertation is to explain and critically assess how Locke links his moral and legal account of personhood to his account of personal identity in terms of sameness of consciousness. My interpretation of Locke’s account of persons and personal identity is embedded in Locke’s sortal-dependent account of identity. Locke’s sortal-dependent account of identity provides an important theoretical framework for my interpretation: It makes clear that Locke’s account of personhood is to be considered separately from his account of personal identity. My approach gives full credit to Locke’s claim that ‘person’ is a forensic term, because I argue that persons, according to Locke, belong to a moral and legal kind of being: they are subjects of accountability. On this basis I argue that two components explain why Locke argues that personal identity consists in sameness of consciousness: firstly, his particular moral and legal conception of a person, and, secondly, his particular understanding of the conditions of just accountability and just reward and punishment. Given one accepts Locke’s conception of a person and his understanding of the conditions of just accountability, it will be easy to see why Locke regards sameness of consciousness to be necessary for personal identity, but the more challenging question is whether sameness of consciousness is also sufficient. I critically assess this question by considering Locke’s account of persons and personal identity within Locke’s epistemological, metaphysical and religious views. I will argue that, at least from the divine perspective, the underlying ontological constitution has to be taken into consideration and that it is a verbal question whether Locke’s term ‘consciousness’ refers not only to phenomenologically given consciousness, but also to the underlying ontological constitution.
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Distance Education and Community Learning Networks linked by a Library of CultureSantiago, Joseph A (DigitalCommons@URI, 2011-02-14)Humans are relational beings with their modeled behavior as practical examples of cultural routines that they hear, see, read, and assemble on their own from communal pieces of information to answer the needs of their everyday lives (Bandura, & Jeffrey, 1973). Yet few researchers have looked at the differing synthesis of culture and generally assume that others share similar ideas/values that lead to particular events and worldviews (Lillard, p.5 1998). Informational and cultural contact zones can be created to support CLNs, universities, and individuals in a variety of roles to encourage their interactions so they might design, and challenge the fundamentals of these programs and seek to better cooperation amongst the public itself (Tremmel, 2000). By increasing communication and collaboration of educational systems throughout the community will begin to raise the standard of living for all people (Bohn, & Schmidt, 2008). This will begin to draw people out from the digital divide and increase the access of technology and information available to all people with the community. Utilizing CLNs to support and further education will allow an interconnected web of assessments, standards, and cooperative efforts that has the potential of increasing democracy by empowering people from their communities.
1,237 New Flu Cases; Close More Places; Urge Masks on AllAnn Arbor, Michigan: Michigan Publishing, University Library, University of Michigan, October 12• Mayor George S. Buck and Acting Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram passed stricter measures yesterday.• At 3:30 pm yesterday, the health dept. became so overwhelmed with reports, the “telephone exchange could not handle them.”• 812 cases at that time, also 22 deaths from influenza and 19 deaths from pneumonia.• Yesterday at 11 pm, there were 1,237 cases for the past 24 hours, average of 50/hour.• In that same 24 hours, 55 deaths from influenza and pneumonia.• Mayor George S. Buck increased the order, which now includes “all businesses not conducted for the distribution of food, clothing, medicines, and other essentials and all indoor meetings of more than ten persons unless authorized by the health commissioner.”• Exceptions include governmental meetings, military gatherings, and meetings related to the Liberty loan.• Casket dealers in Buffalo told Commissioner Franklin C. Gram that there were not enough caskets to bury influenza victims within 24 hours of their deaths.• Commissioner Franklin C. Gram then announced that the dept. of health will produce caskets if there are not enough, and they sold at no cost to all, and will be given away to the poor.• “The health commissioner and his advisory committee announced that universal wearing of a cloth or gauze mask over the nose and mouth would stamp out the epidemic in a week or ten days.”• Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram recommends that everyone wear masks at home and in public areas. This may become an order if the influenza situation gets worse.• Employees of the health dept. and Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram and some of his assistants have been seen wearing masks.• Major Brownrigg of Ft. Porter said that all doctors, nurses, and hospital corps men at the fort will have to wear masks all the time, under military order.• Post office, police, and fire departments will be requested to do the same.• Dr. Charles G. Stockton and Dr. Dewitt H. Sherman, members of the general committee, said they will be wearing masks today. • Others at the meeting yesterday included: Finley H. Greene, W. H. Pillsbury from the school dept., Chief Clerk August A. Schneider from the health dept, Dr. Frederick B. Willard, Major Brownrigg, and H. B. Franklin. Dr. Edward J. Meyer called by phone to give his report about “the hospital situation.”• The new order will close “five and ten cent stores, pool rooms, bowling alleys, ice cream soda fountains, swimming pools, and other non-essential places.”• “Department and clothing stores, groceries, drug stores, restaurants, and similar places will not be closed.”• Indoor meetings of more than ten people will be prohibited, specifically regulated to avoid individuals evading the rules.• Health dept. employees will be on duty in shifts during the day and night during the epidemic.• In addition, the city is divided into 21 districts, with each district having a health inspector in charge of enforcing the regulations.• Military authorities at Ft. Porter provided 100 “sample masks” to use in educational displays for how they are to be used.• The Red Cross is making more of these masks.• Last night, a consignment was received from the Twentieth Century club Red Cross.• Chief Girvin will direct uniformed distribute information about how to care for influenza, as well as preventive measures, to all houses in the city.• “Broadside” sheets will be posted on telegraph poles and in factories today.• For the next week, information will be also distributed through the payroll of factories.• Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram rejected the request of the Christian Science churches for exception from the order, and also announced that the Erie County Medical society’s meeting will also be canceled for this month.• “The doctors will have no special privileges.”• Mayor George S. Buck’s proclamation is printed in this article, basically restates all the rules these articles describe.• It broadens the things that are restricted, and Mayor George S. Buck says, “The duration of this epidemic in Buffalo will depend very largely upon the honest cooperation of every individual citizen.”• Chairman of the committee on factory control in the anti-influenza campaign Dr. P. H. Hourigan announced last night there will be a conference of all industrial physicians of Buffalo tonight at 8:30 pm at the Larkin Men’s club rooms. This meeting will be to “arrive at uniform and cooperating methods of controlling the epidemic through factories.”• All physicians are requested to come to this conference.• City bacteriologist, Dr. William G. Bissell, will talk about prevention/treatment of influenza.• General Chairman of the committee Finley H. Greene requested that factory superintendents post signs about how to prevent influenza near time clocks and in other places. This information could be cut out of newspapers and hung up.• Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram denounced “quack medicine salesmen,” saying that anyone that tried to sell things door to door to make money from this situation would be prosecuted.• Dr. Franklin C. Gram: “This is no time for medicinal profiteering. I have heard of quack nostrums being peddled. The police are notified to arrest anyone found in that business. The remedies for influenza are simple, cheap, and can be procured at any drug store. Influenza requires a cathartic, a gargle, and an oil for the nasal passages. A teaspoon of salt in a glass of water will do for a gargle. Vaseline or olive oil are soothing oils. Fresh air, good care and confidence are essential.”• Dr. Franklin C. Gram had a meeting of the epidemic control committee in his office, and the members discussed preventive measures, including the suggestion that everyone in Buffalo wear a mask over the nose and mouth.• This is not an order yet because the committee would like to gain “popular support.”• Masks are “easy to make,” made out of gauze, cotton cloth, handkerchief, any cloth to cover nose and mouth.• Dr. Charles G. Stockton: “If everyone in the country would go masked at all times the epidemic would be conquered in the United States in a week to ten days.”• Major Brownrigg of Ft. Porter, as well as the other doctors present, all agreed on the plan as effective, but possibly difficult to enforce.• The committee decided to wait to make the request an order until the other measures recently adopted were tested.• The two large casket corporations which usually supply Buffalo have said they cannot meet current demands. • Typically, the demand is for 30/day, but the number of deaths due to influenza and pneumonia alone exceed this number.• Casket manufacturers said that tomorrow there will be no caskets in Buffalo.• Health Commissioner Franklin C. Gram replied to this by saying that he has told the bureau of sanitation to produce caskets if there are no more. The health dept. will sell them to families, and give them away to the poor.
Environment Canada's Let's Not Take Water for GrantedEnvironment Canada, 2002-10-10This site is specifically designed for teachers, and in addition to a collection of activities, provides links to various sites with water information. These include other Environment Canada sites, other Federal Departments in Canada, Provincial Governments, Agencies, colleges and universities, and International Organizations. The site also offers publications that can be obtained free of charge using an order form. Educational levels: High school, Intermediate elementary, Middle school