Author(s)Wilson, Jason Mark.
Contributor(s)De Gruchy, Steve M.
KeywordsChurch and social problems.
Community development--Religious aspects--Christianity.
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AbstractThesis (M.Th.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2005.
This paper examines the following three concepts: development, shalom and sport. It is the findings of this paper that a holistic understanding of the Biblical concept of shalom, provides an appropriate, Christian premise for examining existing development initiatives and for informing intended development praxis.
Furthermore the paper argues that sport is a morally neutral activity, which can have positive influences for society, and is a very effective tool that can be used to pursue a shalom-informed form of development. This is true, regardless of the fact that sport can often be corrupted with negative results.
Finally, sport can aid the church in many ways. In particular, sport is a constructive tool for the church to use with regard to friendship-building, cross-cultural relations and church unity. Furthermore, since the church is a major player in the field of development, when the church uses sport to accomplish the above, development is enhanced. Also, the church can help be a moral voice to the areas of sport that are corrupt and it can support initiatives that provide preventative incentives to negative elements within society.
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Energy and environmental benefits of alternative work arrangementsHasan, Ajaz (2009-08-12)The present rate of fossil fuel burning, the main source of commercial energy, is adversely
impacting global climate. Present social and economic practices need to be examined to
question their level of energy use and related greenhouse gas emission. Energy used to
operate buildings and to transport people is a significant portion of the total energy consumption
and reductions in these uses will be crucial to addressing the global issues.
This thesis examines the potential for energy use reduction in the performance of office work
through the use of Alternative Work Arrangements ("AWAs"). The analysis considers the
operating energy of an office building, operating energy of alternative work locations and the
transportation energy spent by employees in commuting from home to work.
A brief synopsis of the present atmospheric, energy use and workplace trend is presented. The
synthesis of these trends is used as a framework to evaluate the impact of AWAs. The work
arrangements in the Burnaby Fraser Tax Services Office ('BFTSO'), Surrey, BC are used as a
case study to analyze the operating and commuting energy spent by the employees working by
different arrangements. Telework is found to be the most energy efficient work arrangement
implemented at the BFTSO. Under optimum operating conditions, net energy saving per
teleworker can be 34.06 GJ per annum. Net savings in greenhouse gas emission per
teleworker can be 1950 kg per annum. For hoteling work arrangement, net energy savings per
hoteling employee under optimum conditions can be 32 GJ per annum. Related savings in
greenhouse gas emissions can be 1532 kg per annum.
The proportion of total operating and total commuting energy for the BFTSO is almost equal.
However, the greenhouse gas emission from total commuting energy is three times that from
operating energy due to differences in carbon intensity of the fuel mix. Under optimum
conditions the implementation of AWAs at the BFTSO can result in 36 percent saving in total
operating energy and 43 percent saving in total commuting energy. The magnitude of the
savings is location dependent due to differences in climate, fuel mix and transportation patterns.
Alternative Work Arrangements have mixed social impact. It can improve the ability of
employees to balance their personal and professional life. It can also lead to isolation that can
adversely impact morale and work output. The participation rate in AWAs within organizations
is currently low, less than 2 percent. However, the implementation of AWA is widespread with
most organizations using some form of AWA. To increase the participation rate in AWAs, a
comprehensive approach needs to be adopted, considering the professional, personal,
economic and social impact of AWAs. Government intervention through supporting regulations
and incentives can be a strong catalyst for increasing participation rates in AWAs.