Church and small, medium and micro enterprises in rural Tswaing in the North West Province.
Author(s)Kutu, Zodwa Regina.
Contributor(s)De Gruchy, Steve M.
KeywordsInformal sector (Economics)--North West Province.
Church work with the poor--North West Province.
North West Province--Economic conditions.
North West Province--Social conditions.
North West Province--Rural conditons.
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AbstractThesis (M.Th.)-University of KwaZulu-Natal, Pietermaritzburg, 2009.
This thesis is a search for the relationship between the church and SMMEs in the Tswaing
Municipality, in the North West Province. It concerns the role of the church in supporting
SMMEs in such a way that they benefit the whole community instead of individuals, thus
contributing towards the building of the economy in selected areas of rural Tswaing. The
selected areas are Khunwana, Atamelang, Manamolela and Gannalaagte/Vrischgewaagd. It
is written in the context of the church that has come to understand that ministry to the poor is
never complete without dealing with wealth creation, and in recognition of the fact that the
church can offer alternative economic values. Small business development and support in
rural communities is seen to be a key factor in the building of the community economy.
It is argued that rural economies have generally collapsed due to various factors. First
the apartheid policies which displaced communities from areas where agricultural
ventures were thriving to areas that were not suitable for subsistence farming. Second was
rural urban migration which caused some Tswaing community members to go to cities to find
work, leaving behind elderly people and youth who could no longer or were not willing to
live off the land. Whilst in the cities such migrants were marginalized and remained jobless.
Research findings indicate that the Tswaing community have assets and entitlements that
could be harnessed by the church and other stakeholders like Government and big business,
using Kretzmann and McKnight’s approach to community development; that of building the
community from the inside out to enhance the economy. Four areas of involvement have
been identified for the church (i) engaging the three tiers of government by advocacy for
small businesses and ensuring implementation of policy; (ii) promotion of development and
support for SMMEs and (iii) that the church sets up its own development project.
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What is the current thinking and practice of discipline in the primary schools in the informal settlements in the North West Province?
Which disciplinary measures and procedures are currently used in the selected primary schools?
How effective are the current management strategies of discipline used in the selected primary schools?
How can recommendations assist educators in selected primary schools to deal more effectively with disciplinary challenges?
A literature review on the management of school discipline provided a conceptual framework for the empirical inquiry and indicated a lack of empirical studies on the management of discipline in primary schools in informal settlement in the North West Province. This matter is dealt with mostly frequently at high school level. An empirical study using qualitative research methods explored the management of discipline in twenty sampled primary schools in informal settlements in the North West Province, selected through purposive sampling.
Data were gathered by in-depth interviews and focus groups with educators, principals and School Governing Body chairpersons. Data were categorized into themes. Findings showed that some educators still view corporal punishment as the most appropriate strategy to deal with ill-disciplined behaviour in schools; hence corporal punishment is still rife in some of the sampled schools. However, other participants agree that corporal punishment should not be accommodated as stipulated by the South African Constitution and other legal frameworks, instead effective alternative strategies should be deployed to handle ill-disciplined behaviour. Inhuman and outdated approaches should be avoided. Diverse ways of dealing with discipline which are goal oriented and foster good relations between the learner and the educator should be implemented. Sound relations in turn lead to the production of learners with the potential to become good citizens. Based on the literature and empirical inquiry, recommendations were made which advocate educator training on handling discipline in primary schools and the design of effective strategies to maintain sound discipline.