Своеобразие проблематики и жанровой структуры путевого дневника А. Н. Майкова 1842-1843 гг
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AbstractСтатья посвящена изучению проблематики и особенностей жанровой структуры путевого дневника А.Н. Майкова 1842-1843 г., уникального документа, дающего достоверную информацию о периоде становления поэта в комплексе социально-философских, этических и эстетических аспектов, важных как для понимания особенностей его творческого развития, так и для анализа культурной ситуации в России середины XIX в.
Apollon Maikov's traveller's diary of 1842-1843 belongs to the period of the poet's personal and creative formation, which was a period of particular eagerness for new impressions. The diary is a relatively small document comprising 42 sheets in folio. Although it reflects the events of the first months of Maikov's trip only, it is notable for deep insight and a variety of content matter. The informative content is reinforced by a particular fact, namely, the situation of travelling round Europe, which accounts for the abundance and variety of outward thought-provoking impressions, including contemplations on national, historical, socio-political, ethnographic, moral, ethical, reflexive-poetical and aesthetical issues. Formally, Maikov's traveller's diary breaks the genre tradition from the outset. The records lack regularity, some of their dates are missing and often do not reflect the current events the way classic traveller's diaries do. Along with the elements typical for the diary discourse (poetic nature etudes, historical and cultural sketches and description of morals), Maikov's diary incorporates such unusual forms as notes, essays exploring cultural issues, and pieces of translation of fiction and historical works, which does not impair the diary's integrity. The heterogeneity of the diary's content is conspicuous: one can easily notice that it consists of two different parts, the first one represented by notes on travelling from Kronstadt to Rome, including extensive notes made in Paris, the second one by notes made in Rome. The fundamental difference of these parts is demonstrated through the choice of objects of description and, correspondingly, revealed through the author's position. In its content, the first part is close to the traditional form of a traveller's diary and reflects the way the young poet got acquainted with European cities, such as Copenhagen, Le Havre, Paris, Geneva, and some small towns. In the "Roman" part the notes acquire a substantially different character. This is explained by Maikov's peculiar attitude to Italy, his piety to the monuments of the ancient culture: the main goal of his trips was to visit them. Thus, Maikov's traveller's diary of 1842-1843 is a document, which provides reliable information about the period of the poet's formation within the socio-philosophical, ethical and aesthetical aspects that are of considerable importance not only for correct understanding of the poet's creative evolution, but also for the analysis of the cultural situation in Russia of the middle of the 19th century. It lays the foundation of understanding of the problems that were to determine the peculiarities of Maikov's world outlook and aesthetical views in the later periods of his life.