Использование интерактивных методов музейной деятельности в гражданском воспитании детей-сирот (из опыта работы)
KeywordsДЕТИ-СИРОТЫ, МУЗЕЙ, ИНТЕРАКТИВНОСТЬ
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AbstractОбобщен опыт детского дома по осуществлению гражданского воспитания детей-сирот средствами музейной педагогики, определена специфика работы музея в условиях образовательного учреждения, охарактеризован потенциал интерактивных форм музейной деятельности в гражданском воспитании.
The urgency of civil education increases owing to its special importance for development of the identity of orphan children as the phenomenon integrating in intellectual, emotional and sensual, and activity spheres. The main objective of civil education consists in orientation of younger generation to values of domestic culture, formation of the value-oriented attitude to the Homeland, its cultural and historical past, in development of a moral and civil liability of the personality, readiness for self-development and moral self-improvement. High-grade socialization of orphan children is possible only under condition of priority of personal development of pupils, under condition of system changes in the organization of educational activity, promoting formation of independence, initiative, responsibility, civil competence of the personality, active living position of orphan pupils in the condition of creation of a uniform educational space. Now the role of the museums being an integral part of the system of social education, which represent a specific, integrating type of cultural institution combining various functions both scientific and social and pedagogical, cultural and educational considerably increases. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider and define the possibilities of cultural institutions, in particular, a museum taking into account the variety of potential kinds of activity and the new museum technologies promoting new social roles acquisition by children and teenagers that enriches them with experience of informal communication developing cognitive interests, giving cultural values on the basis of a free choice of activity types and forms. Interactive forms of social and educational character influence the emotional sphere of the young, ability to cause various experiences connected with understanding of these or those phenomena; creativity and imagination development are the most acceptable activity types. Forms of implementation of programs of museum activity are diverse, differentiated, complex, including research, cognitive, creative, communicative and practical components. Conditionally they can be divided into theoretical (lectures, conversations, excursions, creative parties, meetings with interesting people, quizzes, etc.) and practical master classes. As the experience of museum and pedagogical activity shows, each of these forms has an interactive component that allows considering museum not only as an institution of social memory ''storage of antiquities'', a collection of subjects of old times, but also as a dynamic integration space participating in realization of an important task socialization of orphan pupils.