Конкурентоспособность человеческих ресурсов в системе трудовых отношений современного общества
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AbstractОбоснованы роль и место конкурентоспособности человеческих ресурсов в системе трудовых отношений общества. Уточнено понятие, выделены уровни формирования в структуре трудовых отношений. Определены компоненты человеческих ресурсов, выступающие конкурентными преимуществами на современном этапе этапе становления экономики знаний.
High competitiveness of human resources becomes the major factor of success of global competition in the conditions of knowledge economy development. Human resources are people possessing physical, intellectual, creative, psychological potentials, professional know-hows and skills. Competitiveness of human resources is understood as a set of qualities defining advantages of the participant of labour relations in comparison with others. Characteristics of human resources influence the type, the content of labour relations and the formation of competitive advantages. Thus, we understand labour relations as relations developing in connection with participation in labour activity. They exist in the pre-labour, labour, afterlabour stages of the persons life cycle. Competition is an immanent peculiarity of labour relations. It is rivalries of their participators caused by comparative qualitative characteristics of labour power offered to an employer. It is revealed in the plane of horizontal labour relations (worker-worker, employer-employer) and in the plane of vertical labour relations (worker-employer). There is a competition in the labour market and during employment. The competition occurs between applicants of workplaces and employers because of the best conditions of hiring in the labour market. It happens both between workers, and between workers and employers (the proprietor, the manager, the chief) because of the conditions of employment in the sphere of employment. Competitiveness of human resources at the ego-level, micro-level, meso-level, macro-level is differentiated. The basis of competitiveness is formed by characteristics of individual human resources. These are 1) physical abilities, health, exterior (the biophysical capital); 2) intellectual and creative abilities, knowledge and skills (the intellectual capital); 3) psychological qualities, moral norms, personal motivations (the moral and psychological capital); 4) origin, connections, the status (the social capital); 5) communicative abilities, flexibility (the communicative capital), etc. Formation of competitiveness of human resources at the macro-level is influenced by internal and external factors. Internal are the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of human resources. External are the social and economic, institutional factors, the labour market and the enterprise environment. The character of influence of internal and external factors should be considered at designing of strategy of state regulation.