«Христос вне истины» и «Истина вне Христа»: Ф. М. Достоевский и Н. Д. Фонвизина
KeywordsФ.М. ДОСТОЕВСКИЙ, Н.Д. ФОНВИЗИНА, ДЕКАБРИСТЫ, РУССКАЯ ЛИТЕРАТУРА, РУССКАЯ РЕЛИГИОЗНАЯ ФИЛОСОФИЯ, F.M. DOSTOEVSKY, N.D. FONVIZINA
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AbstractВ статье анализируется знаменитый «символ веры» Ф.М. Достоевского, содержащийся в его письме к декабристке Н.Д. Фонвизиной от конца января 20-х чисел февраля 1854 г. Впервые данный многократно изученный и прокомментированный текст исследован на фоне личных отношений Достоевского и Фонвизиной, а также в контексте темы «жены декабристов» в творчестве писателя. На этом основании предложена гипотеза о возможной интерпретации «символа веры» Достоевского как отказа от любой «истины» во имя «сияющей личности Христа».
The article examines the famous "symbol of faith" of Fyodor Dostoevsky expressed in his letter to Decembrist N.D. Fonvizina of the end of January February 20, 1854. It is the first time this well-studied and commented text has been considered on the background of the personal relationship between Dostoevsky and Fonvizina. The aim of this article is to analyze the "symbol of faith" in the context of Dostoevsky's perception of Fonvizina's personality and way of life, as well as in terms of the "Decembrist wives" theme in the writer's works. The article draws on the biographical, comparative historical, intertextual and motive methods of literary analysis of the text. It is the first time Dostoevsky's letter is studied in comparison with Fonvizina's letter of November 8, 1853 (preserved in the draft form), to which the writer's letter was the answer. At the time of writing these letters Dostoevsky and Fonvizina were united by their common Siberian destiny, and the general situation of the "resurrection from the dead": Dostoevsky left the penal colony, the Fonvizins left Siberia. The common topic of these two letters by Fonvizina and Dostoevsky was human suffering the writer reflects about basing on biblical texts. It is shown that it is the topic of suffering that Dostoevsky associates with the images of the Decembrists' wives. This is also proved by the chapter "Old People" in Dostoevsky's A Writer's Diary (1873) which contains a continued reflection of the writer about his "symbol of faith". Here it becomes evident that seeking to clarify his "symbol of faith" Dostoevsky distinguishes the personality of Jesus Christ and his doctrine. He believed the doctrine may be destroyed, but the "radiant personality of Christ" is an "insurmountable obstacle" for any such damage. He expressed the same thoughts earlier in his novel Demons. It is believed that the chapter "Old People" is dedicated to V.G. Belinsky. But after the memory of the writer comes the memory of the wives of the Decembrists: Dostoevsky wanted to oppose Belinsky's teaching, his socialism and atheism to the life experiences of real people, the great Christian experience of suffering and self-sacrifice of the Decembrists' wives, their fate of fulfilling the highest moral duty, the absolutely free duty. On this basis, the article proposes a hypothesis of a possible interpretation of the "symbol of faith" as Dostoevsky's rejection of any "truth" in the name of the "radiant personality of Christ". This allows resolving the striking opposition of "Christ" and the "truth" which has been repeatedly discussed in the works about the writer, the opposition of God the Son Jesus Christ, who is the truth, and the truth.