Компетентностный подход к общему физкультурному образованию студентов
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AbstractВ рамках компетентностного подхода рассматриваются понятия «компетенция» и «компетентность» в системе высшего образования. Анализируются мнения исследователей данного подхода, обосновывающие необходимость его внедрения в российскую систему образования.
Physical culture as a subject in the State Educational Standards of the first and second generations was included into the common cultural block of disciplines of the humanitarian cycle. Physical culture has also taken a worthy place in the standards of the new generation. The purpose of its realization in higher education system is designated in the approximate programme of this discipline the formation of physical culture of the personality of a student. To clarify the influence of a competence-based approach on practice of students' sports education, on formation of the general culture of the personality in the higher school, a part of which is physical culture, its short characteristic is provided. There are two basic concepts in the competence-based approach, which are realized in the education system: competence and competency. Competence is considered as the aloof, social requirement to the educational training of the student, which is necessary for his/her effective productive activity in a certain sphere; competency corresponds to possession of the appropriate competence including his/her personal relation to it and object of activity. The concept of competence includes not only cognitive, operational and technological components, but also motivational, ethical, social and behavioural. It includes results of training (knowledge and ability), system of value orientations, habits. Competency is always a relevant display of competence. The occurring all-system (paradigm) shift of education from substantial-knowledge-subject paradigm to a new orientation to personal preparedness and ability to effective activity in a wide field of various contexts is reflected in these definitions. Competence approach in the system of higher education by the definition of its results is focused on practice of application of knowledge, development of operational, technological components, and not just on knowledge (not only "what", but also "how"); difficult, integrative (cognitive and emotional, valuable and motivational, regulatory) nature of education result; formation of personal quality as difficult new growth. Competence-based approach complements its function in system-active, knowledge-oriented, culture-centred approaches to measure the quality of higher education and does not contradict the formation of a common cultural identity. Important points of physical education for students on the basis of competence-based approach, justification of athletic competence as a set of competencies that are generated in the process of physical education were given.