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AbstractR&#233;sum&#233;Le but du projet &#233;tait de diminuer le taux de refus des dons de corn&#233;es par les familles des personnes d&#233;c&#233;d&#233;es, lors des demandes effectu&#233;es au t&#233;l&#233;phone par les coordinateurs des greffes d&#8217;un Centre Hospitalier Universitaire fran&#231;ais. La d&#233;marche s&#8217;est d&#233;roul&#233;e en plusieurs &#233;tapes&#160;: 1/ recherche d&#8217;un consensus, par les coordinateurs des greffes, sur une &#171;&#160;pratique type&#160;&#187; d&#8217;entretien t&#233;l&#233;phonique avec les familles des personnes d&#233;c&#233;d&#233;es&#160;; 2/ optimisation de cette pratique &#224; la lumi&#232;re du paradigme de la communication engageante. La diff&#233;rence essentielle entre &#171;&#160;pratique type&#160;&#187; et &#171;&#160;pratique optimis&#233;e&#160;&#187; tient aux actes &#171;&#160;pr&#233;paratoires&#160;&#187; (un versus deux) que les coordinateurs doivent s&#8217;efforcer d&#8217;obtenir de la part des familles avant de formuler la demande d&#8217;autorisation de pr&#233;l&#232;vement. Les r&#233;sultats obtenus attestent de l&#8217;efficacit&#233; de la d&#233;marche utilis&#233;e, leurs implications m&#233;thodologiques et &#233;thiques sont discut&#233;es.
This project aimed at reducing the rate of refusals of cornea donations by the families of deceased persons when the requests are made by phone by the coordinators of transplants of a French university hospital. The approach comprised several steps: 1/ reaching a consensus with the coordinators of transplants to create a &#8220;standard practice&#8221; for telephone interviews with the families of deceased persons; 2/ optimizing this practice in light of the paradigm of binding communication. The main difference between the &#8220;standard practice&#8221; and the &#8220;optimized practice&#8221; is due to the preliminary acts (one vs. two) that the coordinators must endeavor to obtain from the families before making a request to authorize organ removals. The results confirm the effectiveness of the approach used, and their methodological and ethical implications are discussed.
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Distance Education and Community Learning Networks linked by a Library of CultureSantiago, Joseph A (DigitalCommons@URI, 2011-02-14)Humans are relational beings with their modeled behavior as practical examples of cultural routines that they hear, see, read, and assemble on their own from communal pieces of information to answer the needs of their everyday lives (Bandura, & Jeffrey, 1973). Yet few researchers have looked at the differing synthesis of culture and generally assume that others share similar ideas/values that lead to particular events and worldviews (Lillard, p.5 1998). Informational and cultural contact zones can be created to support CLNs, universities, and individuals in a variety of roles to encourage their interactions so they might design, and challenge the fundamentals of these programs and seek to better cooperation amongst the public itself (Tremmel, 2000). By increasing communication and collaboration of educational systems throughout the community will begin to raise the standard of living for all people (Bohn, & Schmidt, 2008). This will begin to draw people out from the digital divide and increase the access of technology and information available to all people with the community. Utilizing CLNs to support and further education will allow an interconnected web of assessments, standards, and cooperative efforts that has the potential of increasing democracy by empowering people from their communities.
Communicating the Impact of Communication for Development : Recent Trends in Empirical ResearchInogaki, Nobuya (Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012-05-31)The UN Millennium Development Goals call
for not only greater financial commitment in international
assistance programs but also innovative strategies to tackle
the serious economic, health, education, and other basic
human rights problems in the developing world. This paper is
organized as follows: Chapter 2 is an overview of key
theoretical models of development communication. Chapter 3
describes the characteristic patterns of recent empirical
studies in development communication in terms of theoretical
models and types of communication strategies. Chapter 4
presents some outstanding evidence of the impacts of
communication on development initiatives. Chapter 5
discusses weak spots in the evidence. The concluding chapter
will make suggestions for further research by drawing
attention to the theoretical, methodological and empirical
gaps in the existing academic research in development communication.
Applications of Advanced Metering Infrastructure in Electricity DistributionWorld Bank (Washington, DC, 2011)In the second half of the 1980s, several electricity companies in developed countries incorporated the automation of the reads of the consumption meters installed in their customers' premises. Adoption of that approach was driven in all the cases by the need to lower the significant costs of in-site reading, reflecting high labor costs in rich countries. There are several AMI options potentially viable for each of the automated meter reading (AMI) applications, covering a wide range in terms of technical and functional specifications of hardware and software. However, the technical and economic feasibility of a specific option crucially depends on the current operational and financial performance of the involved utilities, as well as on other key characteristics (institutional, regulatory, development of communications infrastructure) of the environment in which they operate. It is very clear that, in AMI, one size does not fit all. The applicability and options for applying AMI or smart meters technology to a variety of customer management issues commonly found in public service utilities, in particular in electricity distribution companies, are described and analyzed in this report.