family-centered approach;parent participation;children with developmental delays;action research
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Abstract[[abstract]]本研究旨在探討發展遲緩兒童家長參與家庭中心取向教育方案的歷程與成效，並據以提出可行的方式。研究參與者是研究者於留職停薪預備撰寫博士論文期間所帶領特殊兒童需求家長團體內的兩位家長與其子女，在家長團體結束後仍未解決在家庭情境教育子女的問題，有意願以個案方式繼續學習教育子女的能力。研究採行動研究設計，透過非干擾性測量、觀察、訪談等方式蒐集資料。本研究結論如下： 一、發展遲緩兒童家長參與家庭中心取向教育方案的歷程 行動方案的實施建構在平等合作的夥伴關係之上，包括兩階段的發展與執行與家庭情境適配的教育方案。教育方案的發展包括：（1）研究者應用現有的兒童發展評量工具及自編的家庭評量工具，持續交替地蒐集與家庭教育子女相關的訊息，彙整撰寫評量摘要，並以討論方式確認家長覺知子女的發展現況與家庭的獨特背景；（2）研究者引導家長統整家庭評量資料完成目標優先順序，並分析教育目標施行的情境，由家長決定第一階段的教育目標，第二階段的教育目標則由家長依當時的家庭情境選擇調整目標優先順序，或另外討論適配的目標；（3）請家長依據目標優先順序的初步討論在家試作並蒐集具體資料，再據此填寫目標差異分析表及發展教育方案。 教育方案的執行包括：（1）因應突發的家庭事件調整教育方案，包括介入情境、執行者與研究者提供協助的方式；（2）兩位家長為教育方案的主要執行者，隨著練習精熟教育子女的特定技能，研究者根據教學記錄、觀察等資料與之討論，協助其調整教學策略；（3）兩位家長自行將教學目標類化至自然情境，研究者分別支持其將教學目標延伸至缺乏自信或未能確實執行的情境、擴展目標能力及協助統整家庭其他成員一致地教學。 二、發展遲緩兒童家長參與家庭中心取向教育方案對研究參與者的實施成效 行動方案的實施成效包括家長參與子女教育的能力，以及子女在教育目標的學習成效。在家長參與子女教育能力方面，兩位家長皆能在協助下參與發展與執行教育方案，且能掌控與應用家庭教育子女的內外資源、自我覺察教育子女的能力以及子女的能力現況、學習特質與需求，且兩位家長皆對自己能力提升的情形感到滿意。在子女預定目標的學習成效方面，兩位子女皆達到預定的教育目標，且能類化至家庭日常情境及其他家庭成員。 三、發展遲緩兒童家長參與家庭中心取向教育方案的可行方式 研究參與者和研究者皆認為此次行動方案的執行是順暢、合理的，歸納方案能順暢執行的關鍵因素，包括：行動前先架構行動歷程的要素作為行動發展與執行的指引，以研究者與研究參與者正向的合作關係為基礎，藉由自編家庭評量工具協助蒐集和統整評量資料、教育方案保持彈性以因應家庭生活事件、善用教學記錄表與彈性安排討論時間等。是故，此次行動方案是家庭中心取向家長參與發展遲緩子女教育的可行方式之一，但實務上仍需視服務提供者、家長、家庭、發展遲緩兒童的特質，調整實施歷程與合作方式。
[[abstract]]In this investigation, the researcher supported 2 mothers of children with developmental delays to develop and implement an educational program at home, then discussed the processes, effects, and practical applications. The 2 mothers were from the parents group of children with special needs that the researcher led during sabbatical leaving to prepare doctoral dissertation, they didn’t solve their problems on teaching children and wanted to keep learning parenting abilities. This was an action research, data were collected by unobtrusive measures, observations, interviews, and others (eg., checklists and scales). The conclusions of this study were as follows： a. The two-step spiral processes of action included developing and implementing the educational programs appropriate for participants’ families in collaborative partnerships between researcher, mothers and their families. The processes of developing this educational program included: first, the researcher used existing tools for children development and developed family assessment scales to continually and reciprocally collect information about families’ parenting abilities. Second, the researcher guided mothers to integrate the data from family assessment, to prioritize educational goals, then mothers decided the first-step educational goals. In the second step, 2 mothers considered their families’ current conditions to decide educational goals by modifying priorities or choosing another goals. Third, 2 mothers tried to teach educational goals by generally discussing priorities and collecting the information about children’s performance and appropriateness for family ecological settings. Basing on the information, researcher and mothers collaborated to finish discrepancy analyses, then developed the educational programs. The processes of implementing this educational program included: first, the action programs were kept flexibly for families’ unexpected events on intervention conditions, implementing, and supporting ways. Second, 2 mothers were the implement of educational programs, the researcher assisted them to modify specific instructional strategies in terms of teaching records, observation, and discussions. Third, 2 mothers generalized the goals into the natural routines and activities themselves, the researcher provided assistance to support 2 mothers to extend the goals into the conditions of lacking confidence, to routinely implement, or to integrate the separate abilities into activities and assisted families to teach children consistently. b. The effects of family-centered parent participation education programs for two mothers and their children. Both mothers could participate to develop and implement educational programs at least assistance, control and apply the informal supports of families for teaching children, be aware of teaching abilities themselves and children current development, learning characteristics and needs, and satisfied with the progress of parenting abilities. Both children attained educational goals, and generalized the abilities into daily routines and other family members. c. The feasible methods on family-centered parent participation in educational program for children with developmental delays. Both mothers and researcher agreed that the procedure of action implementation was fluent and logical. The key factors included: (a) structuring the factors of family-centered approach to develop the guidance for developing and implementing educational programs in advance; (b) implementing the action based on collaborative partnerships; (c) using self-developing tools to collect and integrate the data related families teaching children; (d) keeping educational programs to be flexible for coping family unexpected events; (e) applying the teaching records and keeping flexible for arranging meeting time. Therefore, this action was one of feasible methods for family-centered parent participation in educational programs for children with developmental delays, however, while providing family-centered services, practitioners should modify the processes and collaborative style based on the characteristics of service providers, parents, families and children.