Research Ethics by Disciplines is part of Globethics.net Educational Collections; it is focusing on main disciplines of research and related specific ethical concerns.

Recent Submissions

  • Identifying Key Factors for Accelerating the Transition to Animal-Testing-Free Medical Science through Co-Creative, Interdisciplinary Learning between Students and Teachers

    IRAS OH Toxicology; Abarkan, Fatima Zohra; Wijen, Anna M A; van Eijden, Rebecca M G; Struijs, Fréderique; Dennis, Phoebe; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Merel; Visseren-Hamakers, Ingrid (2022-10-13)
    Even with the introduction of the replacement, reduction, refinement (the three Rs) approach and promising technological developments in animal-testing-free alternatives over the past two decades, a significant number of animal tests are still performed in medical science today. This article analyses which factors could accelerate the transition to animal-free medical science, applying the multi-level perspective (MLP) framework. The analysis was based on qualitative research, including a desk study (literature review and document analysis), lectures from experts, and nine online focus group sessions with experts on 26 July 2021. These were undertaken as part of an honours project between May and September 2021 to identify barriers, levers, and opportunities for accelerating this transition. The MLP framework identifies required changes at three levels: innovations and new practices (niche level), the current (bio)medical research system (regime level), and larger societal forces (landscape level). All three levels interact in a non-linear fashion. The model enabled us to identify many relevant factors influencing the transition to animal-testing-free medical science and enabled priority setting. Our findings supported the formulation of six "focus areas" to which stakeholders could devote efforts in order to accelerate the transition to animal-testing-free medical science: (1) thorough and translatable new approach methods (NAMs) for human-relevant medical research; (2) open science and sharing data; (3) targeted funding for NAMs; (4) implementing and modernising legislation for NAMs; (5) interdisciplinary education on animal-testing-free medical science; and (6) facilitating a shift in societal views, as this would be of benefit to both animals and humans. It is proposed that these focus areas should be implemented in parallel.
  • Waimānalo Pono Research: Indigenizing Community-Engaged Research with a Native Hawaiian Community

    Jane J. Chung-Do; Samantha Keaulana Scott; Ilima Ho-Lastimosa; Kirk Deitschman; J. Kahau Vegas; LeShay Keli‘iholokai; Ikaika Rogerson; Theodore Radovich; Kenneth Ho; A. Hiʻipoi Ho (MDPI AG, 2022-11-01)
    Native Hawaiians, or Kānaka Maoli, the first people to arrive and settle on the Hawaiian Islands, developed an ecologically sustainable food system that sustained the health of up to a million people on the islands. Colonization disrupted this system as well as the healthy lifestyle and cultural practices of the Indigenous people of the Hawaiian Kingdom. Today, Native Hawaiians face pervasive health and social inequities. To build research processes that can meaningfully and sustainably address these inequities, the Waimānalo Pono Research Hui was borne from the vision and priorities of community leaders and members of Waimānalo. Using qualitative data from the annual survey conducted with Waimānalo Pono Research Hui members, the purpose of this study is to illustrate how community engagement and community-based participatory research has been operationalized within a Native Hawaiian community to yield meaningful research. Five themes emerged from the analysis related to the ʻāina (land), pilina (relationships), consent, equitable resources, and data sovereignty. These findings demonstrate the importance of imagining, creating, and implementing research processes that are shaped by community voices.
  • Debate: Should academics collaborate with digital companies to improve young people's mental health?

    Livingstone, Sonia; Orben, Amy; Odgers, Candice (Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 2022-12-16)
    Should academics collaborate with social media and gaming companies to identify and reduce mental health impacts on children and young people? While opinions on this question sharply diverge within the academic community, in practice collaboration is already widespread. As digital platforms increasingly dominate the time and attention of many young people and are the source of both considerable concern as well as offering innovative opportunities for beneficial interventions, researchers are recognising the potential for collaboration to accelerate positive impact. However, concerns over the independence and transparency of collaborative research have received little institutional or collective response. Recognising both the promise and the pitfalls, this debate article calls for multidisciplinary deliberation within the academy to support the co‐development of clear guidelines on the principles and processes by which collaboration is best undertaken, as well as the basis for ensuring that some research remains independent.
  • Etudier le point de vue des enfants : Questions epistemologiques, methodologiques et ethiques en psychologie du developpement

    ROUYER, Veronique; CONSTANS, Stephanie; PONCE, Corinne; Lucenet, Joanna (2022-12-08)
    Dès le début du XXème siècle, les premiers chercheurs en psychologie du développement ont été confrontés à la question de la méthodologie d’enquête auprès des enfants. Le premier objectif de cet article est d’examiner les questions épistémologiques et méthodologiques liées aux recherches centrées sur le point de vue de l’enfant et les conditions permettant à l’enfant d’exprimer celui-ci et aux chercheur.e.s de l’interpréter. Le second objectif de cet article vise à considérer les questionnements éthiques et déontologiques soulevés par la réalisation d’une étude auprès d’enfants, comme le consentement de participation, le respect de l’anonymat, la confidentialité des données recueillies, ou encore la restitution des résultats. Enfin, ces éléments de réflexion sont discutés au regard de l’évolution du statut de l’enfant dans la société, et de la question de sa participation, tant sur le plan de la recherche que sur le plan des pratiques de terrain dans différents contextes.
  • Revisiting the clinical trial history and regulatory mechanisms in Nepal in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

    Paudel, Suman Sharma; Sapkota, Yunima; Gyanwali, Pradip; Dhimal, Meghnath; Ghimire, Namita; Pant, Suman; Bhandari, Dinesh; Mandal, Shrawan Kumar (2022-12)
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  • Translation of the Guidelines for Conducting of Human Subjects Research in Behavioral Science, Social Sciences, and Humanities dated March 18, 2021

    Poowin Bunyavejchewin (14208389) (2022-12-02)
    Translation of the Guidelines for Conducting of Human Subjects Research in Behavioral Science, Social Sciences, and Humanities dated March 18, 2021 [Naeothang patibat nai kan damnoenkan wichai nai manut dan pharuetikam sat sangkhomsat lae manutsat chabap long wanthi 18 Minakhom phoso 2564] The Guidelines have been translated into English by the Translation Unit, Faculty of Arts, Chulalongkorn University. The translation was funded by Vejchewin Research Institute Pvt Ltd (Grant No. MISC-2022-1). This document has been translated from the Thai original for reference purposes only. In the event of any discrepancy between this translated document and the Thai original, the original shall prevail.
  • Revisiting the clinical trial history and regulatory mechanisms in Nepal in the context of COVID-19 pandemic

    Suman Sharma Paudel; Yunima Sapkota; Pradip Gyanwali; Meghnath Dhimal; Namita Ghimire; Suman Pant; Dinesh Bhandari; Shrawan Kumar Mandal (Elsevier, 2022-12-01)
    Presence of Nepal in global clinical trials has been visibly negligible despite the history of conducting large scaled randomized controlled trial on Hepatitis E vaccine decades ago. Majority of the problem is attributed to the lack of collaborative work, financial and human resource constrains. COVID-19 pandemics seems to have triggered urgency among the authorities of Nepal leading to a substantial increase in the number of clinical trials in collaboration with national and international organizations/institutions. Immediately after detection of the first COVID-19 case on 13 January 2020, the Ethical Review Board (ERB) of NHRC received several research proposals, subsequently leading to the approval of the first clinical trial for COVID-19 on 01 July 2020 to investigate potential of traditional Ayurveda based medicine for COVID treatment. Soon, number of other clinical trial proposals received approval and implemented in the country, however budgetary allocation from the Government of Nepal (GON) was prioritized for COVID-19 outrage management and vaccination coverage only. Collaborations with various international institutions played a significant role in the successful implementation of large-scale clinical trials in the country and further laid the path for future. In this review paper we present the recent developments in clinical trials in Nepal, budgetary allocation from the government and the mechanisms in place for regulation of clinical research in the country along with challenges and way forward.
  • Conclusion: Migration Research in Times of Ubiquitous Digitization

    Pötzschke, Steffen; Rinken, Sebastian; Rinken, Sebastian; Pötzschke, Steffen (SpringerCHECham, 2022-11-14)
    In this concluding chapter, the book’s editors stress the epochal status of the digital revolution and urge migration scholars to leverage innovative information and communication technology for enhancing their research designs. New technological options may contribute significantly to improving the viability and quality of researcher-defined data collections, yet their full potential comes to bear with regard to massive datasets generated by third parties, such as digital trace data. Since the center of gravity of social studies is predicted to shift increasingly towards the repurposing of such accrued data, migration researchers are advised to seek close cooperation with data scientists. In addition to methodological pluralism and interdisciplinary collaboration, the editors emphasize the need for ethical safeguards and accountability as major challenges this ongoing transformation entails.
  • Ética del cuidado compasivo en la familia: cuidando al cuidador

    Bueno Arnau, Miryam Inmaculada; Goberna Tricas, Josefina; López Matheu, Carme (Dipòsit Digital de la Universitat de BarcelonaUniversitat de Barcelona, 2018-11-27)
    Introducción: el cuidado compasivo es una acción ética dentro de la principal misión de un profesional enfermero: cuidar. Y, en concreto, cuidar al cuidador/a familiar. El objetivo de este estudio es profundizar en la ética de la compasión y su relación con el cuidado al cuidador familiar. Material y métodos: este es un estudio de revisión bibliográfica. Las bases de datos consultadas han sido: PUBMED, CINAHL, CUIDEN, y CUIDATGE. Resultados: cumplieron los criterios de inclusión 12 artículos. Los resultados se estructuraron en: ética compasiva del cuidado en la comunidad, los cuidadores y cuidadoras familiares, formación educativa a las familias, relación terapéutica, cuidados compasivos en las pequeñas cosas. Discusión: se necesitan más estudios cualitativos sobre los cuidadores y cuidadoras informales y sobre sus necesidades de cuidado. También se debe tener en cuenta al contemplar estas necesidades la alta feminización de los cuidadores/as informales. Esto implica la conveniencia de desarrollar programas específicos para mujeres cuidadoras. Se evidencia también que cualquier intervención resulta efectiva al aplicarla en cuidadores/as informales.Conclusiones:las enfermeras deben liderar la realización de programas de cuidados para los cuidadores informales. Quedan demostrados los buenos resultados que produce cualquier intervención en los cuidadores informales. Extender el cuidado compasivo a los cuidadores familiares es un deber ético de todo profesional enfermero.
  • Research Ethics Committees Certificate

    Moohebat Shoyukhi (9967769) (2022-11-05)
    The project was found to be in accordance to the ethical principles and the national norms and standards for conducting Medical Research in Iran. Notice: Although the proposal has been approved by the Biomedical Research Ethics Committee, meeting the professional and legal requirements is the sole responsibility of the PI and other project collaborators. This certificate is reliant on the proposal/documents received by this committee on 2021-01-04. The committee must be notified by the PI as soon as the proposal/documents are modified. This certificate is part of the "Developing a Comprehensive Plagiarism Assessment Rubric" published by Education and Information Technologies at https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-022-11365-1.
  • Revisiting Ethics in Correspondence Testing

    Zschirnt, Eva (2016-05-01)
    Questions of research ethics always arise when planning a correspondence test to study discrimination in the market place. However, the issue is addressed relatively little in published correspondence tests with authors usually referring to the two seminal articles written in this field (i.e. Banton (1997) and Riach and Rich (2004)). Since then correspondence testing has become more widespread and the technique is increasingly relying on the internet to find and send applications. It is therefore necessary to revisit the question of ethics in correspondence testing. This paper addresses the ethical issues that researchers are facing in correspondence tests that study discrimination in hiring decisions in the labour market in particular. It provides a short overview on the development of research ethic guidelines. The main part of the paper focuses on the ethical issues that arise in correspondence testing, looking at questions of covert research, potential problems (regarding voluntary participation, informed consent, deception, entrapment of employers, employer’s rights), possible solutions and technical challenges. Looking at specific country examples, decisions by ethical commissions and national legal frameworks are considered. These show that testing has to be renegotiated depending on the national context, and, in the case of Germany, legal implications of correspondence testing are discussed. The paper concludes that correspondence testing, if planned carefully and executed responsibly, does not violate research ethics in social sciences.
  • Ethics and policy for bioprinting

    Eliza Goddard (9478433); Susan Dodds (9487493) (2020-12-09)
    No description supplied
  • Research during COVID-19 Pandemic: Perspectives from the Ethics Committees of a Lower Middle Income Country

    Ghimire, N.; Panthee, A.; Sharma, M. R.; Adhikari, R. K.; Gyanwali, P. (Kathmandu Medical College, 2020-12-31)
    The pandemic of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has created paradoxically a good opportunity globally to conduct research in the field of health and social science, and a Lower Middle-Income Country (LMIC) like Nepal is not an exception in this regard. During this ongoing pandemic, the Ethical Review Board (ERB) of Nepal Health Research Council (NHRC) has received numerous research proposals regarding COVID-19. As its main responsibility is to ensure participants’ safety, at the same time maintaining the scientific standard of research, the ERB has meticulously gone through all the proposals received so far. During this situation of a health emergency, the ERB of NHRC has had a different experience compared to the usual time. Its strength, weakness, opportunities, and threats have been like never before.
  • CONP Ethics Toolkit v1.0.2

    Beauvais, Michael J.S.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Cavoukian, Ann; Clarkson, John; Green-Noble, Lindsay; Illes, Judy; Karamchandani, Jason; Nadler, Roland; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Stewart, Walter (2021-11-08)
    CONP Ethics Toolkit consisting of: Model prospective consent clauses Retrospective consent filter De-identification information and tools This consent toolkit is the product of extended discussions and careful drafting that considers both Canadian and international ethical frameworks and research practice. In adapting this consent toolkit for your own research needs, we encourage you to mention to your research ethics board that your consent materials closely follow the templates created by the CONP Ethics and Governance Committee. The Committee's members include internationally recognized experts in research ethics, neuroethics, data governance, and law. The Committee's members are: Bartha Maria Knoppers (Chair), Michael Beauvais (Manager), Ann Cavoukian, John Clarkson, Lindsay Green-Noble, Judy Illes, Jason Karamchandani, Roland Nadler, Dylan Roskams-Edris, and Walter Stewart. Further feedback was graciously provided from members of the CONP community, in particular Patrick Bermudez, Marcel Farrés Franch, Jessica Royer, and Robert Zatorre. Full Changelog: https://github.com/CONP-PCNO/Ethics_and_Data_Governance/compare/v1.0.1...v1.0.2
  • CONP Ethics Toolkit v1.0.3

    Beauvais, Michael J.S.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Cavoukian, Ann; Clarkson, John; Green-Noble, Lindsay; Illes, Judy; Karamchandani, Jason; Nadler, Roland; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Stewart, Walter (2022-02-28)
    CONP Ethics Toolkit consisting of: Model prospective consent clauses Retrospective consent filter De-identification information and tools This consent toolkit is the product of extended discussions and careful drafting that considers both Canadian and international ethical frameworks and research practice. In adapting this consent toolkit for your own research needs, we encourage you to mention to your research ethics board that your consent materials are modeled after those created by the CONP Ethics and Governance Committee. The Committee's members include internationally recognized experts in research ethics, neuroethics, data governance, and law. The Committee's members are Bartha Maria Knoppers (Chair), Alexander Bernier (Manager), Ann Cavoukian, John Clarkson, Lindsay Green-Noble, Judy Illes, Jason Karamchandani, Roland Nadler, Dylan Roskams-Edris, and Walter Stewart. Further feedback was graciously provided from members of the CONP community, in particular Patrick Bermudez, Marcel Farrés Franch, Jessica Royer, and Robert Zatorre. GitHub source: https://github.com/CONP-PCNO/Ethics_and_Data_Governance
  • CONP Ethics Toolkit v1.0.1

    Beauvais, Michael J.S.; Knoppers, Bartha Maria; Cavoukian, Ann; Clarkson, John; Green-Noble, Lindsay; Illes, Judy; Karamchandani, Jason; Nadler, Roland; Roskams-Edris, Dylan; Stewart, Walter (2021-10-18)
    CONP Ethics Toolkit consisting of: Model prospective consent clauses Retrospective consent filter De-identification information and tools This consent toolkit is the product of extended discussions and careful drafting that considers both Canadian and international ethical frameworks and research practice. In adapting this consent toolkit for your own research needs, we encourage you to mention to your research ethics board that your consent materials closely follow the templates created by the CONP Ethics and Governance Committee. The Committee's members include internationally recognized experts in research ethics, neuroethics, data governance, and law. The Committee's members are: Bartha Maria Knoppers (Chair), Michael Beauvais (Manager), Ann Cavoukian, John Clarkson, Lindsay Green-Noble, Judy Illes, Jason Karamchandani, Roland Nadler, Dylan Roskams-Edris, and Walter Stewart. Further feedback was graciously provided from members of the CONP community, in particular Patrick Bermudez, Marcel Farrés Franch, Jessica Royer, and Robert Zatorre. Full Changelog: https://github.com/CONP-PCNO/Ethics_and_Data_Governance/compare/v1.0...v1.0.1
  • Vulnerable data subjects

    Gianclaudio Malgieri; Jędrzej (2020-07-31)
    Discussion about vulnerable individuals and communities spread from research ethics to consumer law and human rights. According to many theoreticians and practitioners, the framework of vulnerability allows formulating an alternative language to articulate prob- lems of inequality, power imbalances and social injustice. Building on this conceptualisa- tion, we try to understand the role and potentiality of the notion of vulnerable data subjects. The starting point for this reflection is wide-ranging development, deployment and use of data-driven technologies that may pose substantial risks to human rights, the rule of law and social justice. Implementation of such technologies can lead to discrimination systematic marginalisation of different communities and the exploitation of people in particularly sensitive life situations. Considering those problems, we recognise the special role of per- sonal data protection and call for its vulnerability-aware interpretation. This article makes three contributions. First, we examine how the notion of vulnerability is conceptualised and used in the philosophy, human rights and European law. We then confront those findings with the presence and interpretation of vulnerability in data protection law and discourse. Second, we identify two problematic dichotomies that emerge from the theoretical and prac- tical application of this concept in data protection. Those dichotomies reflect the tensions within the definition and manifestation of vulnerability. To overcome limitations that arose from those two dichotomies we support the idea of layered vulnerability, which seems compatible with the GDPR and the risk-based approach. Finally, we outline how the notion of vulnerability can influence the interpretation of particular provisions in the GDPR. In this process, we focus on issues of consent, Data Protection Impact Assessment, the role of Data Protection Authorities, and the participation of data subjects in the decision making about data processing.
  • Notas de campo : percursos éticos e metodológicos em uma pesquisa com crianças na educação infantil

    Machado, Sandro; Carvalho, Rodrigo Saballa de (2021-05-13)
    O artigo, a partir do campo dos Estudos Sociais da Infância, tem como objetivo discutir desafios éticos e metodológicos implicados na realização de uma pesquisa com crianças. Metodologicamente, tomam-se como materialidade investigativa as notas de campo de uma pesquisa de Mestrado. Para tanto, é realizada uma análise textual das notas de campo, no sentido de ilustrar o processo de geração dos dados e a elaboração do relatório final. Desse modo, são apresentadas considerações sobre as orientações legais a respeito da pesquisa com crianças e um panorama sobre os Estudos Sociais da Infância e suas contribuições para a discussão ética. Ademais, é apresentada uma análise sobre a participação das crianças na pesquisa enquanto parte do processo investigativo. Por fim, nas conclusões, defende-se a necessidade de que os pesquisadores compreendam as produções das crianças, não apenas como objeto de confirmação de suas premissas teóricas, mas como constituintes de reflexões.
  • Researching student absence: Methodological challenges and ethical issues

    Young, Pat; Yates, Sue; Rickaby, Caroline; Snelling, Paul; Lipscomb, Martin; Lockyer, Lesley (Elsevier, 2010-05-01)
    This article describes the challenges encountered in a research project aiming to explore non-attendance from the perspective of absent students. These students are nursing students in a Faculty of Health and Social Care, but the issues raised here are of wider interest. Although attendance at the sessions monitored for this project is stated to be compulsory, there is typically a non-attendance rate of around 20%. Previous studies within the Faculty have reported positively on students' views of the sessions, but have relied on data collected from students present in the university and attending the sessions. We felt it was important to correct this imbalance with the views of those students who do not attend. We hoped to access the views of students not present in the university by means of telephone interviews, carried out by a researcher independent from the course management. This article explores a number of ethical and methodological issues which arose from the research, focusing on the difficulties in gaining informed consent from students who do not attend, and the challenges in moving beyond surface responses to questions on reasons for non-attendance. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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