Research Ethics by Disciplines is part of Educational Collections; it is focusing on main disciplines of research and related specific ethical concerns.

Recent Submissions

  • Participation des opérateurs de jeux de hasard et d'argent au financement de la recherche

    Comité d'éthique de l'Inserm (CEI); Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); Membres comité d'éthique de l'Inserm, - (HAL CCSD, 2015)
    Avis, suite saisine GIS-IReSP
  • Abfuhr für den Impfzwang

    Ritzmann, Iris; Wolff, Eberhard (Blick-Verlag, 2021-01-10)
  • Biomedical ethics and clinical oversight in multisite observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents: The ABCD experience.

    Clark, Duncan B; Fisher, Celia B; Bookheimer, Susan; Brown, Sandra A; Evans, John H; Hopfer, Christian; Hudziak, James; Montoya, Ivan; Murray, Margaret; Pfefferbaum, Adolf (eScholarship, University of California, 2018-08-01)
    Observational neuroimaging studies with children and adolescents may identify neurological anomalies and other clinically relevant findings. Planning for the management of this information involves ethical considerations that may influence informed consent, confidentiality, and communication with participants about assessment results. Biomedical ethics principles include respect for autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. Each project presents unique challenges. The Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development study (ABCD) collaborators have systematically developed recommendations with written guidelines for identifying and responding to potential risks that adhere to biomedical ethics principles. To illustrate, we will review the ABCD approach to three areas: (1) hazardous substance use; (2) neurological anomalies; and (3) imminent potential for self-harm or harm to others. Each ABCD site is responsible for implementing procedures consistent with these guidelines in accordance with their Institutional Review Board approved protocols, state regulations, and local resources. To assure that each site has related plans and resources in place, site emergency procedures manuals have been developed, documented and reviewed for adherence to ABCD guidelines. This article will describe the principles and process used to develop these ABCD bioethics and medical oversight guidelines, the concerns and options considered, and the resulting approaches advised to sites.
  • Sport Integrity: Ethics, Policy and Practice: An Introduction

    Harvey, Andy; McNamee, Mike; 130586 (TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2019-01-02)
    status: published
  • Enthusiasm, concern and ambivalence in the Belgian public’s attitude towards in-vitro gametogenesis

    Heidi Mertes; Tina Goethals; Seppe Segers; Marie Huysentruyt; Guido Pennings; Veerle Provoost (Elsevier, 2022-03-01)
    Given the controversial nature of research into in-vitro gametogenesis (IVG), this study set out to investigate the current attitudes towards IVG in the general Belgian population in order to anticipate potential future barriers and misunderstandings. A questionnaire was developed and incorporated into a web-based online survey and sent out to Belgians aged ≥ 18 years in September 2018 until a representative sample (by age, gender and region) of 1000 participants was reached. Respondents expressed an overall positive attitude towards IVG and its possible future applications, with the exception of the use of IVG in postmenopausal women. They were ambivalent about the importance of genetic parenthood and about the necessary experiments on animals and embryos to bring IVG to the clinic. While the willingness to accept greater risks for IVG than for other assisted reproductive technology treatments was low (17.5%), the use of spare in-vitro fertilization embryos to study those risks was acceptable for 55.8% of participants; embryo creation was acceptable for 38.1%; and experiments on mice and monkeys were acceptable for 45.3% and 30.4%, respectively. Finally, 85.6% of participants agreed that the Belgian Government should strictly regulate IVG. In conclusion, preclinical research into IVG and other reproductive technologies elicits a great diversity of attitudes towards the importance of genetic parenthood and the acceptability of embryo and animal research. There is a need for public dialogue on these topics.

    Syamsoeyadi H.; Tjokrosaputro M. (Russian Journal of Agricultural and Socio-Economic Sciences, 2021-12-01)
    This study aims to obtain the quantitative results related to the effect of electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) towards value co-creation on sharing economy platform in Indonesia with ethical perceptions as the mediator. The sampling technique that was used is non-probability sampling of 223 respondents all around Indonesia that was collected using questionnaires with online survey. The data was analyzed used Partial Least Square-Structural Equation Modeling. The results of this study indicate that ethical perceptions have positive and significant effect in mediating the role of electronic word of mouth towards value co-creation on sharing economy platform in Indonesia. This study also gives insight about the priority of ethical perceptions above electronic of mouth as the step of consideration for company to make decision in improving the value of corporation.
  • A plea for an experimental philosophy of medicine

    De Block, Andreas; 2503; Hens, Kristien; 55263 (SPRINGER, 2021-12-17)
    status: published
  • Protecting population health or respecting individual freedom in epidemic context: how economists could contribute?

    Neuroépidémiologie Tropicale (NET) ; Institut Génomique, Environnement, Immunité, Santé, Thérapeutique (GEIST) ; Université de Limoges (UNILIM)-Université de Limoges (UNILIM)-CHU Limoges-Institut d'Epidémiologie Neurologique et de Neurologie Tropicale-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine (LEDa) ; Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD)-Université Paris Dauphine-PSL ; Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Université Paris sciences et lettres (PSL); Université de Limoges (UNILIM); Thebaut, Clémence (HAL CCSD, 2021-12-01)
    La crise sanitaire a conduit la collectivité à s’interroger sur la valeur accordée à la santé, par rapport aux autres dimensions de la vie. Dans quelle mesure les économistes disposent-ils d’outils pour guider les décisions publiques dans ce contexte épidémique? Certains arbitrages préexistaient à la crise : entre la protection de la santé de la population à court moyen ou long terme, entre la protection de la santé de certaines populations, au détriment d’autres, entre la protection de la santé de la population et la satisfaction de besoins extra-sanitaires (loisirs, éduction, etc.). Les outils que les économistes mobilisent pour évaluer les interventions innovantes et coûteuses (médicaments programmes de dépistage, etc.) peuvent être utilisés pour éclairer le débat démocratique. La crise a toutefois soulevé des arbitrages plus inédits lorsqu’il s’est agi de choisir entre, d’une part, la protection de l'état de santé de la population, et, de l’autre, la protection des libertés individuelles. Est-il possible et légitime de mobiliser les méthodes issues de l’économie du bien-être pour trancher ce dilemme ?

    Solinsky, Cynthia Diane (School of Education, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, 2022-01-11)
    This was a qualitative study of discourses and practices reported by a sample (n = 45) of self identified sustainable farmers in central Wisconsin. I collected survey data, conducted farm visits, interviews, and analyzed map data. I used a theoretical framework modified from Leopold’s (1949) work on land ethics and the A-B cleavage, which was Leopold's description of the contrast between utilitarian value versus a broader definition of value in nature. I found
 that participants’ discourses and practices were distributed across a range of four categories.
 Farmers in Cleavage A regard land as soil and its function as commodity production; in Cleavage A+, soil regeneration is incorporated in daily agricultural practices; in Cleavage B, land is a biota and functions for more than personal benefits; and in Cleavage B+, land is actively managed for not only food, but also actively managed for wildlife. Secondary functions are regarded as valuable and necessary to regenerate and sustain a healthy environment. I found
 that participants who self-identified as sustainable farmers were reportedly managing their land in ways that I analyzed as Cleavages A+ to B+. I also found that most participants (68%) reportedly attended college before farming, and supported curricula for sustainability. I conclude that these findings show the importance of educational sustainability throughout majors in higher education classes. I make three recommendations for curricula, for agriculture, and for further research.
  • Ethical and Legal Implications of Third-Party Incentives to Win Matches in European Football

    Trivino, Jose Luis Perez; Lopez Frias, Francisco Javier; McNamee, Michael John; 130586 (ROUTLEDGE JOURNALS, TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2022-02-26)
    status: published
  • A Performance Evaluation of Ethical Mutual Funds: Evidence from India

    Jasvinder Kaur (Faculty of Management & Finance, University of Colombo, 2021-12-01)
    Since the last decade, ethical investment has gained significant development in the Indian financial market. With the increasing focus on social responsibility and the importance of ethical funds, investors pay more attention to the activities of these funds and their impact on society. Whether ethical fund investment affects portfolios’ return performance is still questionable. To address this question, this paper investigated the performance of various ethical mutual fund schemes and compared them with benchmark index (NIFTY 500 Shariah Index) using data from 2014-15 to 2019-20. The performance of the sample schemes was measured based on the risk-return profile and Sharpe’s ratio, Treynor’s ratio and Jensen’s alpha measures. The results indicated that nine out of ten ethical schemes outperformed the benchmark index during the study period. This implies that ethical funds generated positive returns with lower risk. As a policy implication, investment funds and financial institutions should develop fund schemes and stocks that incorporate ethical considerations in an investment.
  • Au nom des ressources humaines...

    Lettres, arts du spectacle, langues romanes (LASLAR); Université de Caen Normandie (UNICAEN); Normandie Université (NU)-Normandie Université (NU); Boblet, Marie-Hélène (HAL CCSDTaylor & Francis (Routledge), 2016)
    International audience
  • Book review : 'The Somatechnics of intersexuality'

    Macquarie University. Department of Media, Music, and Cultural Studies; Sullivan, Nikki (Duke University Press, 2009)
    We live in a world in which "the body" is conceived as a malleable substance in a state of potential transition and, moreover, the vast majority of bodies are experienced as "wrong": they have too few (or too many) limbs or digits; they (or parts of them) are the wrong size, the wrong age, the wrong color; they are "sexually ambiguous"; they bear the wrong ethnic markers; they inhibit particular identities and/or aspirations; they simply do not seem "right." Surgery, then, becomes a way to put things right, to restore order. While the writing to date on modificatory surgeries is immensely varied, the vast majority is subtended by a conception of medical practices and procedures as technologies separate from the bodies they seek to modify. In this model, the body is a fleshly substrate that simply is prior to its enhancement or mutilation by the technologies that transform its original state. This article deploys the term somatechnics to think through the varied and complex ways in which bodily-being is always already shaped by technés—from, for example, the surgeon's knife to the discourses that justify and contest the use of such instruments. I argue, then, that the conceptions of, debates around, and questions about specific modificatory practices are themselves technologies that shape corporeality at the most profound level. In doing so I aim to make a critical intervention into, and open up new spaces for reflection in, existing debates about the somatechnics of intersexuality.
  • La morale transfigurée par le style

    Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Aix Marseille Université (AMU); Espace éthique méditerranéen ; Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Le Coz, Pierre (HAL CCSD, 2020)
    International audience
  • Paediatric palliative care: why transfuse?

    Centre Hospitalier Universitaire [Rennes]; Université de Rennes 1 (UR1) ; Université de Rennes (UNIV-RENNES); Robert, Guillaume; Chappe, Celine; Ferreira, Ana; Mc Ewan, Elisabeth; Calmanti, Sara (HAL CCSDBMJ Publishing Group, 2021)
    International audience
  • Ethical practice in adult lifelong learning: a reflection on its shifting nature and significance for the future

    Bagnall, Richard G; Hodge, Steven; O'Regan, Paddy (Routledge: Taylor & Francis Group, 2021)
    It is argued here that ethical practice and being in adult lifelong learning are best understood as a feature of competing adult lifelong learning epistemologies informing practice and engagement in the field at all levels. The conceptions of ethics immanent to the epistemologies are not directly identifiable with any of the normative theories of modernist ethics, although they are tangentially informed by the critique generated in and between those theories. Of the five epistemologies and conceptions of ethics identified as important in the field, disciplinary, developmental and emancipatory epistemologies and ethics have been variously prominent throughout its history, but design epistemology and ethics are now generally dominant. However, in response to changes in the contemporary cultural context, the latter are now transforming into a reflexive epistemology and ethic of authenticity, raising the prospect of a number of morally disabling tendencies, the recognition and avoidance of which emerges as an imperative for the future of the field.
  • Brain-Injured Footballers, Voluntary Choice and Social Goods. A Reply to Corlett.

    Lopez Frias, Francisco Javier; McNamee, Michael; 130586 (Taylor & Francis (Routledge), 2019-03-07)
    In this essay, we respond to Angelo Corlett’s criticism of our paper ‘Ethics, Brain Injuries, and Sports: Prohibition, Reform, and Prudence’. To do so, first, we revisit certain assumptions and arguments Corlett makes concerning intercollegiate football and brain injuries in his 2014 paper ‘Should intercollegiate football be eliminated?’. Second, we identify and criticize two key elements in his response regarding (a) ‘luck egalitarianism’, and (b) ‘public goods’. We conclude by reaffirming our critical reading of Corlett’s original 2014 paper and by identifying further elements (i) luck and the nature of individual responsibility; and (ii) the nature of sports as public rather than merely private goods, that he would have to address for his latter 2018 position to hold true.
  • Prinsip Kepimpinan Menurut Perspektif Islam

    Ibrahim, Ismail; Kamaruddin, Mohd Fauzi; Syed Hassan, Syed Najmuddin; Mohamad Sharif, Sabri; Yunos, Nasruddin (2009)
    Kemahiran kepimpinan merupakan satu elemen kemahiran insaniah yang penting. Para graduan yang lahir dari menara gading adalah merupakan aset dan harta negara yang amat bernilai tinggi dan mereka bakal mewarisi tampok pemerintahan negara pada satu masa nanti.Kertas kerja ini bertujuan membuat kajian terhadap prinsip-prinsip kepimpinan yang digariskan oleh Islam dalam melahirkan manusia yang hebatdari sudut kepimpinan. Bagi memenuhi dan mencapai matlamat ini, kajian akan dibuat berasaskan tinjauan literatur dan rujukan kepada dalil-dalil yang terdapat dalam al-Quran dan as-Sunnah serta pendapat para ilmuwan Islam yang muktabar khususnya yang berkaitan dengan prinsip-prinsip kepimpinan Islam. Pada akhir kajian ini, diharapkan dapat dirumuskan prinsip kepimpinan berdasarkan pendangan ajaran Islam yang sebenar.
  • Perceptions of animal experimentation: a longitudinal survey with veterinary students in Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil

    Lyssavirus, épidémiologie et neuropathologie - Lyssavirus Epidemiology and Neuropathology; Institut Pasteur [Paris]; Machado, Gisele; de Melo, Guilherme Dias; Perri, Silvia; Fernandes, Fernando; Moraes, Olívia; Souza, Milena; Grano, Fernanda; Silva, José; et al. (HAL CCSDTaylor & Francis (Routledge), 2017-10-06)
    International audience
  • Book Symposium on The Agrarian Vision:Sustainability and Environmental Ethics by Paul B. Thompson

    Sandin, Per; Mårald, E; Davison, A; Nye, David Edwin; Thompson, P. B. (2013-09-24)

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