• 'Moral distress'-time to abandon a flawed nursing construct?

      Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Hutchinson, Alison (Sage, 2015-02-01)
      Moral distress has been characterised in the nursing literature as a major problem affecting nurses in all healthcare systems. It has been portrayed as threatening the integrity of nurses and ultimately the quality of patient care. However, nursing discourse on moral distress is not without controversy. The notion itself is conceptually flawed and suffers from both theoretical and practical difficulties. Nursing research investigating moral distress is also problematic on account of being methodologically weak and disparate. Moreover, the ultimate purpose and significance of the research is unclear. In light of these considerations, it is contended that the notion of moral distress ought to be abandoned and that concerted attention be given to advancing inquiries that are more conducive to improving the quality and safety of moral decision-making, moral conduct and moral outcomes in nursing and healthcare domains.
    • 2007 AMENDMENTS TO THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES' GUIDELINES FOR HUMAN EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH

      National Research Council (United States). Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research Council [and] Institute of Medicine (United States) (2011-07-12)
      Introduction -- Clarifying the phrase "provenance of the cell lines" -- 1.2 (a) hES cell research permissible after currently mandated reviews -- Use of NIH-approved hES cell lines -- 1.4 Use of NIH-approved hES cell lines -- Importation of hES cell lines into an institution or jurisdiction -- 1.5 Acceptability of research using hES cell lines imported from other institutions or jurisdictions -- ESCRO committees serving multiple institutions -- 2.0 Establishment of an institutional embryonic stem cell research oversight committee -- Frozen IVF blastocysts derived from anonymous sperm donors: absence of informed consent -- Considering the science in hES cell research proposals: advice for ESCRO committees -- Sample questions for reviewing hES cell research -- Appendixes -- A. National academies' guidelines for human embryonic stem cell research, amended as of February 2007 -- B. Committee biographical sketches
    • 2011 ESPAD Report: Substance Use Among Students in 36 European Countries, The

      Hibell, Bjorn; Ahlstrom, Salme; Balakireva, Olga; Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Guttormsson, Ulf; Kokkevi, Anna; Kraus, Ludwig (European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA), 2011-01-01)
      394 pages. This is the report from the fifth data-collection wave of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD ). It is based on data from more than 100,000 European students. Over the years about 500,000 European students have answered the ESPAD  questionnaire. The first ESPAD  report, with data from 1995, included information from 26 countries, while this fifth report contains results from 36 countries. Contents: summary, introduction, methodology and procedures, methodological considerations, the situation in 2011 , key results 2011  country by country, trends 1995-2011 , the European average, the cannabis abuse screening test, polydrug use by European adolescents, sampling and data collection in participating countries, and student questionnaire.
    • 2020 ICRCC Proceedings Table of Contents

      Organizers, Conference (STARS, 2020-01-01)
      These proceedings are a representative sample of the presentations given by professional practitioners and academic scholars at the 2020 International Crisis and Risk Communication Conference (ICRCC) held March 9-11, 2020. The ICRCC is an annual event that takes place the second week in March in beautiful sunny Orlando, Florida. The conference hosts are faculty and staff from the Nicholson School of Communication. The goal of the ICRCC is to bring together prominent professional practitioners and academic scholars that work directly with crisis and risk communication on a daily basis. We define crisis and risk broadly to include, for example, natural disasters (e.g., earthquakes, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tsunamis), political crises, food safety issues, biosecurity, health pandemics, and so on.
    • 21st Bethesda Conference: Ethics in Cardiovascular Medicine Task Force IV: Scientific Responsibility and Integrity in Medical Research

      Frommer, Peter L.; Ross, John; Benson, John A.; Friedman, William F.; et. al. (American College of Cardiology, 2016-01-08)
    • 21st Bethesda Conference: Ethics in Cardiovascular Medicine, Oct 5-6, 1989. Task Force IV: Scientific Responsibility and Integrity in Medical Research

      Frommer, Peter L.; Ross, John; Benson, John A.; Friedman, William F.; Friesinger, Gottlieb C.; Goldstein, Sidney; Huth, Edward J.; Levine, Robert J.; Malone, Thomas E.; Quash, Joseph A.; et al. (2015-05-05)
    • 30 Years of agronomic research in Iran: II. Evaluation of research ethics

      A. Koocheki; M. Nassiri Mahallati; R. Ghorbani; S. Khorramdel (Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, 2016-05-01)
      During the last three decades publication of papers in different fields of agronomic sciences have been increased drastically in Iran. However, there is growing warnings about research misconducts. To get a quantitative insight into the commitment to the research ethics, 1269 papers published during the last 3 decades in the refereed domestic journals were surveyed using human tools. The frequency of different type of misconducts were calculated and compared statistically. The results indicated that overlap in title, the target crop, experimental factors (treatments) and the measured traits was occurred with frequency of 26% among the surveyed papers which was categorized as unauthorized adoption of ideas. Falsification and fabrication was distinguished based on the coefficient of variation (CV), probability of type I error and discrepancy between the results of ANOVA and regression analysis. This type of misconducts had frequency of 6%. However, plagiarism had a significantly higher frequency and was detected in up to 12% of the papers. The frequency of all type of misconducts was significantly higher in the papers where the corresponding authors were students compared to the papers published by scientific staffs of universities/research institutes. Overall research misconducts were distinguished in 16% of papers and were most frequent in the 1380 decade compared to 60’s and 70’s. It seems that lack of awareness about the principles of research ethics is the main cause of the prevalence of the observed misconducts. Therefore, development of a national code of ethics is of high priority for the national agricultural research system in the country.
    • "Spirituality is everybody's business": An exploration of the impact of spiritual care training upon the perceptions and practice of rehabilitation professionals

      Jones, Kate Fiona; Pryor, Julie; Care-Unger, Candice; Simpson, Grahame (ResearchOnline@ND, 2020-01-01)
      Purpose: This study explored the impact of a brief spiritual care training program upon the perceptions and self-reported practice of rehabilitation professionals working in traumatic injury. Methodology and methods: A qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were held with staff from a rehabilitation hospital in Sydney, Australia, between six and eight weeks after participation in spiritual care training. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Of the 41 rehabilitation professionals who attended the training (1 h online, 1.5 h face to face), 16 agreed to be interviewed. The majority worked in spinal cord injury and were female. Half reported holding a Christian affiliation. One overarching theme and six sub-themes were identified from the qualitative data. The overarching theme was “spirituality is everybody’s business”. The six sub-themes were: (i) increased awareness of the nature of spirituality, (ii) realisation of the importance of spirituality to clients, (iii) a desire to keep spirituality on the radar, (iv) identifying barriers to providing spiritual care (v) incorporating spirituality into practice, and, (vi) recognising spirituality as personally meaningful. Conclusions: A brief spiritual care training program can impact positively upon perceptions and practice of rehabilitation professionals. Ongoing training is needed to ensure that staff retain what was learnt. IMPLICATIONS FOR REHABILITATION Brief spiritual care training can impact positively upon rehabilitation professionals’ perceptions of spirituality and lead to practice change in the delivery of spiritual care across many clinical disciplines. The stories of patients and family members are powerful staff education tools in spiritual care training. Client spirituality is an under recognised resource that staff can draw upon in supporting and enhancing the rehabilitation process.
    • 3D and ethics celebrate their first anniversary

      Environnement Ville Société (EVS); École normale supérieure - Lyon (ENS Lyon)-École des Mines de Saint-Étienne (Mines Saint-Étienne MSE); Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] (IMT)-Institut Mines-Télécom [Paris] (IMT)-Université Lumière - Lyon 2 (UL2)-Université Jean Moulin - Lyon III (UJML); Université de Lyon-Université de Lyon-Institut National des Sciences Appliquées de Lyon (INSA Lyon); Université de Lyon-Institut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA)-Institut National des Sciences Appliquées (INSA)-Université Jean Monnet [Saint-Étienne] (UJM)-École Nationale des Travaux Publics de l'État (ENTPE)-École nationale supérieure d'architecture de Lyon (ENSAL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Jacquinod, F.; Klein, N. (HAL CCSD, 2011)
    • “Decision-making capacity for research participation among addicted people: a cross-sectional study”

      Morán-Sánchez, Inés; Luna, Aurelio; Sánchez-Muñoz, Maria; Aguilera-Alcaraz, Beatriz; Pérez-Cárceles, Maria (BioMed Central Ltd., 2016-01-13)
      Abstract Background Informed consent is a key element of ethical clinical research. Addicted population may be at risk for impaired consent capacity. However, very little research has focused on their comprehension of consent forms. The aim of this study is to assess the capacity of addicted individuals to provide consent to research. Methods 53 subjects with DSM-5 diagnoses of a Substance Use Disorder (SUD) and 50 non psychiatric comparison subjects (NPCs) participated in the survey from December 2014 to March 2015. This cross-sectional study was carried out at a community-based Outpatient Treatment Center and at an urban-located Health Centre in Spain. A binary judgment of capacity/incapacity was made guided by the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT–CR) and a clinical interview. Demographics and clinical characteristics were assessed by cases notes and the Mini-Mental State Examination, the Global Assessment Functional Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Results NPCs performed the best on the MacCAT–CR, and patients with SUD had the worst performance, particularly on the Understanding and Appreciation subscales. 32.7 % SUD people lacked research-related decisional capacity. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of capacity to consent to research. Conclusions The findings of our study provide evidence that a large proportion of individuals with SUD had decisional capacity for consent to research. It is therefore inappropriate to draw conclusions about capacity to make research decisions on the basis of a SUD diagnosis. In the absence of advanced cognitive impairment, acute withdrawal or intoxication, we should assume that addicted persons possess decision-making capacity. Thus, the view that people with SUD would ipso facto lose decision-making power for research consent is flawed and stigmatizing.
    • 9.70 Social Psychology, Spring 2009

      Chorover, Stephan L. (2009-06)
      Our conjoint participation in the 9.70 learning system places us in a consensually-shared social situation. (All of the foregoing words are important. Do you understand their meaning in this context?) We will endeavor to organize ourselves into a community of discourse that approximates (albeit in an altogether partial way) a meaningful, real-world research enterprise: Like all scientific communities, we will work with limited resources. Unlike "real" scientific communities, ours will operate under the constraint of predetermined project duration and contractually agreed-upon limits in the amount of time and effort to be contributed to it by the individual participants. Toward this end, we randomly divide the membership of the class – at the outset — into subsystems – study groups — intended to operate interdependently with others while each remains together as a stable subsystem for the duration of the term, unless or until the participants determine otherwise. This approach creates a "level playing field." The coursework will provide everyone with first hand opportunities to experience and to exchange ideas about what it means to scientifically investigate (experimentally/experientially) the subject before us on individual, small group and large group levels.
    • A Bestiary in Five Fingers

      Seán McCorry (LED Edizioni Universitarie, 2014-11-01)
      Tyler, Tom. 2012. CIFERAE: a Bestiary in Five Fingers. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. 376 pp. $ 30.00. ISBN 978-0816665440.
    • A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

      Auray-Blais, Christiane; Patenaude, Johane (BioMed Central, 2006)
      "Background The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs), especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. Methods We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. Results The proposed model includes the following: 1) a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2) offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3) protects the participant's confidentiality and 4) adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. Conclusion Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs, as well as researchers by promoting an archivist to a pivotal role in the process. It assures protection of all participants who altruistically donate their samples to generate and improve knowledge for better diagnosis and medical treatment"
    • A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

      Auray-Blais, Christiane; Patenaude (2011-07-12)
      BACKGROUND : The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs), especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. METHODS : We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. RESULTS : The proposed model includes the following: 1) a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2) offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3) protects the participant's confidentiality and 4) adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. CONCLUSION : Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs, as well as researchers by promoting an archivist to a pivotal role in the process. It assures protection of all participants who altruistically donate their samples to generate and improve knowledge for better diagnosis and medical treatment.
    • A biobank management model applicable to biomedical research

      Auray-Blais, Christiane; Patenaude (2011-07-12)
      BACKGROUND : The work of Research Ethics Boards (REBs), especially when involving genetics research and biobanks, has become more challenging with the growth of biotechnology and biomedical research. Some REBs have even rejected research projects where the use of a biobank with coded samples was an integral part of the study, the greatest fear being the lack of participant protection and uncontrolled use of biological samples or related genetic data. The risks of discrimination and stigmatization are a recurrent issue. In light of the increasing interest in biomedical research and the resulting benefits to the health of participants, it is imperative that practical solutions be found to the problems associated with the management of biobanks: namely, protecting the integrity of the research participants, as well as guaranteeing the security and confidentiality of the participant's information. METHODS : We aimed to devise a practical and efficient model for the management of biobanks in biomedical research where a medical archivist plays the pivotal role as a data-protection officer. The model had to reduce the burden placed on REBs responsible for the evaluation of genetics projects and, at the same time, maximize the protection of research participants. RESULTS : The proposed model includes the following: 1) a means of protecting the information in biobanks, 2) offers ways to provide follow-up information requested about the participants, 3) protects the participant's confidentiality and 4) adequately deals with the ethical issues at stake in biobanking. CONCLUSION : Until a governmental governance body is established in Quebec to guarantee the protection of research participants and establish harmonized guidelines for the management of biobanks in medical research, it is definitely up to REBs to find solutions that the present lack of guidelines poses. The model presented in this article offers a practical solution on a day-to-day basis for REBs, as well as researchers by promoting an archivist to a pivotal role in the process. It assures protection of all participants who altruistically donate their samples to generate and improve knowledge for better diagnosis and medical treatment.
    • A Bottom-up Trend in Research of Management of Technology

      Ishino, Yoko (2014)
      Management of Technology (MOT) is defined as an academic discipline of management that enables organizations to manage their technological fundamentals to create competitive advantage. MOT covers a wide range of contents including administrative strategy, R&D management, manufacturing management, technology transfer, production control, marketing, accounting, finance, business ethics, and others. For each topic, researchers have conducted their MOT research at various levels. However, a practical and pragmatic side of MOT surely affects its research trends. Finding changes of MOT research trends, or the chronological transitions of principal subjects, can help understand the key concepts of current MOT. This paper studied a bottom-up trend in research fields in MOT by applying a text-mining method to the conference proceedings of IAMOT (International Association for Management of Technology). First, focusing on only nouns found several keywords, which more frequently emerge over time in the IAMOT proceedings. Then, expanding the scope into other parts of speech viewed the keywords in a natural context. Finally, it was found that the use of an important keyword has qualitatively and quantitatively extended over time. In conclusion, a bottom-up trend in MOT research was detected and the effects of the social situation on the trend were discussed.
    • A Brief Introduction to Informed Consent in Research With Human Subjects

      Pedroni, Julia A.; Pimple, Kenneth D. (2016-01-08)
    • A Call for Sharing of Research Causes Gene Stocks to Plunge

      Berenson, Alex; Wade, Nicholas (2011-07-12)