• Haber Etiği ve Bir Siyasi Haber İncelemesi / News Ethics and An Analysis of a Political News

      Buğra KARDAN (Okur Yazar Derneği, 2015-07-01)
      Medyada haber etiği ve habercilik ahlakı tartışmaları, medya tarihi kadar eski bir olgudur. İletişim teknolojisinin sağladığı imkânlarla faaliyet çeşitliliği, etki gücü ve etki alanı hızla artan basın-yayın sektörü, siyasi ve/veya mali hedefler gözeten birer araç olarak artık daha sık kullanılmakta ve ortaya çıkan etik (ve adli) sorunlar, medyada haber etiği tartışmalarının güncel kalması sonucunu doğurmaktadır. Bu çalışmada medyada haber etiği konusu, siyasi bir haber (bir siyasi parti genel başkanına dönük şiddet eylemi haberi) çerçevesinde ele alınmış; olayın farklı siyasi duruşlardaki bazı medya organları (gazeteler) tarafından haberleştirilme biçimi, belirli kıstaslar altında toplanan veriler eşliğinde, haber etiği perspektifiyle ve karşılaştırmalı olarak incelenmiştir. Yapılan inceleme sonuçlarına göre, özellikle bazı gazetelerde söz konusu haberin sunuş biçimi üzerinde medya organlarının siyasi pozisyonlarının etkili olabildiği gözlemlenmiştir. / Debates on ethics in media and journalism has a long-standing history, just as the history of media. Due to the opportunities provided by communication technologies, power, influence and functions of the press and media increase and so that play an instrumental role in maximization of the political and/or financial ambitions of political or economic actors. Hence, debates on news ethics continue forever to be a major issue. This study focuses on ethical issues in the news and more specifically political news; elaborates on a news about the violence that a political party leader faced in Turkey, and analyzes how media (newspapers) from different political views reflected the case. As a result of the study, it has been observed that newspapers presented the event largely according to their political positions and worldviews.
    • Habilitation thesis. Volume 1. The observer in quantum theory. Volume II. New technologies and ancient narratives.

      Laboratoire des Recherches sur les Sciences de la Matière (LRSM) ; Institut de Recherches sur les lois Fondamentales de l'Univers (IRFU) ; Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA)-Université Paris-Saclay-Commissariat à l'énergie atomique et aux énergies alternatives (CEA)-Université Paris-Saclay; Université Paris 7; Jean-Jacques Szczeciniarz; Grinbaum, Alexei (HAL CCSD, 2018-11-28)
    • Habits of mind and the split-mind effect: when computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software is used in phenomenological research

      Goble, Erika; Austin, Wendy; Larsen, Denise; Kreitzer, Linda; Brintnell, E. Sharon (DEU, 2012-05-10)
      When Marshall McLUHAN famously stated "the medium is the message," he was echoing Martin HEIDEGGER's assertion that through our use of technology we can become functions of it. Therefore, how does adopting computer-assisted qualitative data analysis software affect our research activities and, more importantly, our conception of research? These questions are explored by examining the influence NVivo had upon an interdisciplinary phenomenological research project in health ethics. We identify the software's effects and situate our decision to use it within the Canadian health sciences research landscape. We also explore the challenges of remaining true to our project's philosophical foundations, as well as how NVivo altered our being-in-the-world as researchers. This case demonstrates McLUHAN's claim that new technologies invariably initiate new practices and modes of being, and urges researchers to attend to how we are both shaping and being shaped by software.
    • Handbook of research methods in medicine

      Bankole, M.A. (NERDC Press, Lagos, NG, 1991)
    • Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: Responses from studies in six countries

      2010-03-23
      Background: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods. Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results. The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions. Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives. © 2010 Ries et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
    • Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries

      Ries, Nola M.; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy (BioMed Central, 2010)
      Background: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years. This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. Methods: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. Results: The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. Conclusions: Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.
    • Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

      Ries, Nola M.; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy (2011-07-12)
      BACKGROUND: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. RESULTS: The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.
    • Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

      Ries, NM; LeGrandeur, J; Caulfield, T (2010-03-23)
      BACKGROUND: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. RESULTS: The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.
    • Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries.

      Ries, Nola M.; LeGrandeur, Jane; Caulfield, Timothy (2011-07-12)
      BACKGROUND: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort studies may be established to study specific conditions (e.g. autism, asthma) or may have a broad aim to research a range of factors that influence the health and development of children. Studies are increasingly intended to serve as research platforms by providing access to data and biological samples to researchers over many years.This study examines how six birth cohort studies in North America and Europe that involve genetic research handle key ethical, legal and social (ELS) issues: recruitment, especially parental authority to include a child in research; initial parental consent and subsequent assent and/or consent from the maturing child; withdrawal; confidentiality and sample/data protection; handling sensitive information; and disclosure of results. METHODS: Semi-structured telephone interviews were carried out in 2008/09 with investigators involved in six birth cohort studies in Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands and the United States. Interviewees self-identified as being knowledgeable about ELS aspects of the study. Interviews were conducted in English. RESULTS: The studies vary in breadth of initial consent, but none adopt a blanket consent for future use of samples/data. Ethics review of new studies is a common requirement. Studies that follow children past early childhood recognise a need to seek assent/consent as the child matures. All studies limit access to identifiable data and advise participants of the right to withdraw. The clearest differences among studies concern handling of sensitive information and return of results. In all studies, signs of child abuse require reports to authorities, but this disclosure duty is not always stated in consent materials. Studies vary in whether they will return to participants results of routine tests/measures, but none inform participants about findings with unknown clinical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of how cohort studies in various jurisdictions handle key ELS issues provides informative data for comparison and contrast. Consideration of these and other examples and further scholarly exploration of ELS issues provides insight on how best to address these aspects in ways that respect the well-being of participants, especially children who become research subjects at the start of their lives.
    • Handling of informed consent and patient inclusion in research with geriatric trauma patients – a matter of protection or disrespect?

      Jensen JS; Reiter-Theil S; Celio DA; Jakob M; Vach W; Saxer FJ (Dove Medical Press, 2019-02-01)
      Jana S Jensen,1,* Stella Reiter-Theil,2,* Diana A Celio,3 Marcel Jakob,1 Werner Vach,1 Franziska J Saxer1 1Department of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery, University Hospital Basel, Basel 4031, Switzerland; 2Department of Clinical Ethics, University Hospital Basel/Psychiatric Hospitals of the University Basel, Basel 4012, Switzerland; 3Department for Visceral, Thoracic and Vascular Surgery, Triemli Hospital, Zürich 8063, Switzerland *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Despite the aging of numerous societies and future health care challenges, clinical research in the elderly is underrepresented. The aim of this review was to analyze the current practice exemplary in gerontotraumatology and to discuss potential improvements. Materials and methods: A literature review was performed in 2016 based on a PubMed search for gerontotraumatologic studies published between 2005 and 2015. Trials were evaluated for methodology and ethical and age-related aspects. Results: The search revealed 649 articles, 183 of which met the inclusion criteria. The age range for inclusion was heterogeneous; one-third of trials included patients Conclusion: Many trials in gerontotraumatology exclude relevant subgroups of patients, and thus risk presenting biased estimates of the relevant treatment effects. Exclusion based on age, cognitive impairment, or other exhaustive exclusion criteria impedes specific scientific progress in the treatment of elderly patients. Meaningful trials could profit from a staged, transparent approach that fosters shared decision making. Rethinking current policies is indispensable to improve treatment and care of elderly trauma patients and to protect study participants and researchers alike. Keywords: systematic review, orthogeriatric, gerontotraumatology, informed consent, clinical research ethics, decisional capacity
    • Harms and benefits. The impact of shared information in focus groups on children’s relationships

      Graham, A; Powell, M; Taylor, N; Anderson, D; Fitzgerald, R; Graham, A.; ; ; ;; Powell, M.; ; ; ;; Taylor, N.; ; ; ;; Anderson, D.; ; ; ;; Fitzgerald, R.; ; ; ;; et al. (FlorenceUNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti, 2013)
      This compendium is part of an international project entitled Ethical Research Involving Children (ERIC). ERIC has been motivated by a shared international concern that the human dignity of children is honoured, and that their rights and well-being are respected in all research, regardless of context. To help meet this aim, the ERIC compendium acts as a tool to generate critical thinking, reflective dialogue and ethical decision-making, and to contribute to improved research practice with children across different disciplines,theoretical and methodological standpoints, and international contexts.
    • Harms of Excluding Pregnant Women From Clinical Research: The Case of HIV-Infected Pregnant Women

      Kass, Nancy E.; Taylor, Holly A.; King, Patricia A. (2015-05-05)
      ...It is our purpose (1) to describe how pregnant and nonpregnant HIV-infected women are included in clinical research; (2) to trace federal policies concerning the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research; (3) to document the inclusion of HIV-infected pregnant and nonpregnant women in clinical trials; (4) to discuss issues relevant to whether sponsors or institutions could be liable if harm were to result from pregnant women's inclusion in as well as the implications of restricting pregnant women's access to AIDS research; and, finally, (5) to provide policy recommendations concerning the circumstances in which HIV-infected pregnant women ought to be included in clinical research. It should be noted from the outset that we focus on pregnant women because current regulations generally prohibit the inclusion of pregnant women in clinical research. Clearly, further research is necessary concerning the extent to which adverse reproductive outcomes are male-mediated and whether liability and other concerns might arise in the future by virtue of including in research men of reproductive potential.
    • Harry F. Harlow and Animal Research: Reflection on the Ethical Paradox

      Gluck, John P. (2015-05-05)
      With respect to the ethical debate about the treatment of animals in biomedical and behavioral research, Harry F. Harlow represents a paradox. On the one hand, his work on monkey cognition and social development fostered a view of the animals as having rich subjective lives filled with intention and emotion. On the other, he has been criticized for the conduct of research that seemed to ignore the ethical implications of his own discoveries. The basis of this contradiction is discussed and propositions for current research practice are presented.
    • Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells for Research: Response to NIH Draft Guidelines

      Schnurr, Dennis (2011-07-12)
      National Institutes of Health
    • Harvesting Embryonic Stem Cells for Research: Response to NIH Draft Guidelines

      Schnurr, Dennis (2011-07-12)
      National Institutes of Health
    • Have centralised ethics and governance applications improved the time-variable, and approval process to conduct research in Victorian hospitals?

      Baguley, Brenton J.; Jefford, Michael; Aly, Ahmed; Cashin, Paul; White, Victoria (Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Asia, 2019-06-01)
    • Hazy Boundaries: Virtual Communities and Research Ethics

      Kantanen, Helena; Manninen, Jyri (MISC, 2017-09-29)
      This paper examines ethical issues specific to research into virtual communities. Drawing on an empirical case with online forums of education experts, we identify the following key issues: publicity versus privacy of the community; the definition of human subjects research; participant recruitment; informed consent; and ethical questions associated with observing virtual communities, and with reporting and disseminating research results. We maintain that different research cultures in different countries can present challenges when studying global forums. Acknowledging the ephemeral characteristics of Internet contexts, this paper argues that ethical considerations should be more case-based, instead of relying on one model for all solutions. We suggest that local ethics committees or institutional review boards could, with their expert knowledge of ethics, provide valuable support for researchers operating in the complex and dynamic terrain of Internet research, as well as in fields and research settings where an ethical review is not a standard part of the research process.
    • Há realmente uma ciência normal no sentido kuhniano do termo?

      Oliveira, Dayvide Magalhães de (BRA, 2020-07-17)
      In consideration of the postures of Kuhn and his critics, we will turn our attention to reflect on the possibility of a normal science (in the kuhnian sense). The motivating question for the central problem of this text will be: Is there really a normal science in the sense proposed by Kuhn? We aim to offer an answer that will partially agree with the Kuhnian ideal of normal science.