• Jalons pour une anthropologie de l’éthique entrepreneuriale en Asie du Sud-Est

      Ghislaine Gallenga; Jérôme Soldani (Université de Provence, 2013-06-01)
      The entrepreneurship ethics is widely mobilized in business and enterprise milieu in South-East Asia where it is most often presented as a set of moral, ideological or religious precepts that local actors designate by the term “Asian values”. The purpose of this introduction is to put these so called values in the context of entrepreneurship on the basis of seminal works dealing with South-East Asian entreprises. We will see that in most cases these works oscillate between two poles: first, Max Weber’s sociology of industrial capitalism through the prism of religious ethics, and secondly the substantivist approach of Karl Polanyi. If the analytical tools of these debates have been applied mostly to entrepreneurs from the Chinese Diaspora, it is the question of the entrepreneurs’ dominant ideology through the prism of philosophical and religious currents which serve as benchmarks. How values and ideologies are perpetuated, adapted or implemented by company management? How do they fit also in micro-strategies of local actors? How does entrepreneurial ethics decline in business of various statutes and in entrepreneurs’ families? What images these families do build, and what are the values involved in the construction of this ethics? In other words, we mean to observe existing practices in this part of the world and understand their logic through anthropological analysis. Thus, contributions of this issue provide both some answers and open to other ideas to contribute to outline what “entrepreneurship ethics” can be in the region of South-East Asia expanded to Sino-Indian margins.
    • Japanese Researchers Rule Out Gene Patents

      Swinbanks, David (2011-07-12)
      news
    • Japanese Researchers Rule Out Gene Patents

      Swinbanks, David (2011-07-12)
      news
    • "Jésus, Lazare, Noé et le mammouth : Résurrection de la chair humaine et déextinction de l'espèce animale"

      Université de Nantes (UN); Maillard, Ninon (HAL CCSDObservatoire des mutations institutionnelles et juridiques, Université de Limoges, 2018)
      International audience
    • John Harris' Argument for a Duty to Research

      Brassington, Iain (2016-01-08)
      John Harris suggests that participation in or support for research, particularly medical research, is a moral duty. One kind of defence of this position rests on an appeal to the past, and produces two arguments. The first of these arguments is that it is unfair to accept the benefits of research without contributing something back in the form of support for, or participation in, research. A second argument is that we have a social duty to maintain those practices and institutions that sustain us, such as those which contribute to medical knowledge. This argument is related to the first, but it does not rely so heavily on fairness. Another kind of defence of the duty to research rests on an appeal to the future benefits of research: research is an effective way to discharge a duty to rescue others from serious illness or death, therefore we have a duty to research. I suggest that all three of Harris' lines fail to provide a compelling duty to research and spell out why. Moreover, not only do the lines of argument fail in their own terms: in combination, they turn out to be antagonistic to the very position that Harris wants to defend. While it is not my intention here to deny that there might be a duty to research, I claim that Harris' argument for the existence of such a duty is not the best way to establish it.
    • Johns Hopkins Research Returns to Normal

      Greenberg, Daniel S. (2016-01-08)
    • Journalism as a research methodology in the academic context

      Kate MacNeill, Barbara Bolt; Vine, J (Taylor and Francis (United Kingdom), 2019)
      Journalism as an academic discipline has existed in tertiary institutions since the 1920s and has grown exponentially in Australia since the mid-1970s. Traditionally, ethics committees of academic institutions in Australia vary in their understanding of journalisms professional values and beliefs, making scholarly research using journalism as a methodology difficult. Journalism in the context of practice-based research is distinct from other academic disciplines such as Journalism Studies. The opportunities for publication in scholarly journals are, then, seemingly almost limitless. There are flexibilities within the National Statement to allow for research using journalism as a methodology to proceed. The twinned concepts of Research Merit and Integrity are designed to ensure academic research is not frivolous but has genuine justification and is carried out with expertise. Journalisms spirit and intent around harm minimisation are in alliance with the National Statements concept of Respect, or a recognition of each individuals intrinsic value.
    • Journalism ethics in local newspaper

      Moch. Syahri (Universitas Airlangga, 2020-03-01)
      Professional and quality journalists are subject to an ethical code and their understanding and competence of said ethics code. Ethics are the minimum values or moral traditions that are used to separate truths from mistakes and good from the bad. Journalism ethics are the rules adhered to by journalists. News coverage has objectives. In order to reach said objectives, journalists should adhere to the professional ethics that they comprehend in the news coverage. Such a comprehension cannot be separated from the different interests involved in the news production process. This research aimed to identify the journalists’ understanding of the values of independence, objectivity, their relationship with their sources and gifts from sources. This research used the phenomenology method. Data collection was done via interviews with 13 Radar Malang journalists. The data analysis employed was Turner’s Theory of Structuration. The research findings presented that first, independence and objectivity are ethical values that are impossible for journalists to maintain. This is since news writing involves interpretation and choices because writing the news is the result of the journalists’ interpretation of their economic interests and journalist idealism. The news is written with a particular tendency in mind. Objectivity is only regarded in the scope of the balance of news. Second, there is a dynamic relationship between journalists and the sources of the news. Journalists are always in a dilemma when writing news that relates to the interests of the news sources. Journalists may receive any gifts from the sources so long as they do not relate to the news. In general, journalists should refuse remittance. However, any other kinds of gifts are still tolerable.
    • Judging the Ethical Merit of Clinical Trials: What Criteria Do Research Ethics Board Members Use?

      Meslin, Eric M.; Lavery, James V.; Sutherland, Heather J.; Till, James E. (2015-05-05)
    • Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from socio-legal research by Sharyn Roach Anleu & Kathy Mack: Commentary

      Gar Yein Ng (Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law, 2014-12-01)
      <p>This commentary examines the contribution in this edition by Roach Anleu & Mack, based on arguments that reducing judicial performance evaluation (ergo any professional performance) to that which is easily measurable removes the human aspect of that performance, and is therefore less accurate. Here, “measurable” is meant as focusing only on the “outward performance”, “interaction with stakeholders” and how judges perform in relation to numbers of cases. Compared to such organisational standards, judicial codes of ethics or other written codes reflect the more traditional values of the judiciary, such as independence and impartiality. This can be seen e.g. in the experiences of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe in supporting the use of judicial performance standards. The argument in the paper, supported by this commentator, is that such exercises are superficial and more depth is needed to capture the entirety of the judicial experience using the model presented.</p> <hr /><p>Este comentario analiza el artículo de Roach Anleu y Mack en este número, en base a los argumentos de que limitar la evaluación del rendimiento judicial (ergo cualquier rendimiento profesional) a lo que es fácilmente medible elimina el aspecto humano de ese rendimiento, y es por lo tanto menos preciso. Aquí, por “medible” se entiende lo que está centrado únicamente en el “rendimiento exterior”, la “interacción con los interesados” y el rendimiento de los jueces en relación con el número de casos. En comparación con estas normas de organización, los códigos judiciales de ética u otros códigos escritos reflejan los valores más tradicionales de la judicatura, como la independencia o imparcialidad. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las experiencias de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa en apoyar el uso de las normas de rendimiento judicial. El argumento del artículo, apoyado por esta autora, es que estos ejercicios son superficiales y se necesita más profundidad para capturar en su totalidad la experiencia judicial utilizando el modelo presentado.</p> <p><strong>DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN</strong>: <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2541088" target="_blank">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2541088</a></p>
    • Judicial Performance and Experiences of Judicial Work: Findings from socio-legal research by Sharyn Roach Anleu & Kathy Mack: Commentary

      Gar Yein Ng (Oñati International Institute for the Sociology of Law, 2014-12-01)
      <p>This commentary examines the contribution in this edition by Roach Anleu & Mack, based on arguments that reducing judicial performance evaluation (ergo any professional performance) to that which is easily measurable removes the human aspect of that performance, and is therefore less accurate. Here, “measurable” is meant as focusing only on the “outward performance”, “interaction with stakeholders” and how judges perform in relation to numbers of cases. Compared to such organisational standards, judicial codes of ethics or other written codes reflect the more traditional values of the judiciary, such as independence and impartiality. This can be seen e.g. in the experiences of the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe in supporting the use of judicial performance standards. The argument in the paper, supported by this commentator, is that such exercises are superficial and more depth is needed to capture the entirety of the judicial experience using the model presented.</p> <hr /><p>Este comentario analiza el artículo de Roach Anleu y Mack en este número, en base a los argumentos de que limitar la evaluación del rendimiento judicial (ergo cualquier rendimiento profesional) a lo que es fácilmente medible elimina el aspecto humano de ese rendimiento, y es por lo tanto menos preciso. Aquí, por “medible” se entiende lo que está centrado únicamente en el “rendimiento exterior”, la “interacción con los interesados” y el rendimiento de los jueces en relación con el número de casos. En comparación con estas normas de organización, los códigos judiciales de ética u otros códigos escritos reflejan los valores más tradicionales de la judicatura, como la independencia o imparcialidad. Esto puede verse, por ejemplo, en las experiencias de la Organización para la Seguridad y la Cooperación en Europa en apoyar el uso de las normas de rendimiento judicial. El argumento del artículo, apoyado por esta autora, es que estos ejercicios son superficiales y se necesita más profundidad para capturar en su totalidad la experiencia judicial utilizando el modelo presentado.</p> <p><strong>DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN</strong>: <a href="http://ssrn.com/abstract=2541088" target="_blank">http://ssrn.com/abstract=2541088</a></p>
    • Juggling and joining perspectives and relationships: multicultural researchers in multilocal frames of reference

      Schmalenbach, Christine; Kiegelmann, Mechthild (DEU, 2018-07-19)
      In the face of globalization, more and more researchers have multicultural and multilocal backgrounds. This creates both challenges and possibilities. When combined with conducting research in a context in which people have experienced high levels of social marginalization, the intricacy of the research process increases. Much time, care, and reflection are required to secure ethical conduct and the validity of the research, and to facilitate results that are relevant for all those involved. The transformative paradigm and postcolonial indigenous research methodologies are theoretical frameworks that can guide this process.In this article, we describe some of our experiences while developing an ethnographic dissertation project in a marginalized urban school and its direct surroundings in El Salvador. It is written from two perspectives: Christine SCHMALENBACH writes from her perspective as a German researcher who grew up in Mexico and did research in El Salvador. Mechthild KIEGELMANN writes from the perspective of a mentor who oversaw the project from Germany and was pivotal in spurring and enriching processes of reflection. We share our experiences form the research process hoping that they will be helpful for researchers and advisors in similarly complex situations.
    • Juridiske regler og etiske aspekter

      Hansen, Gitte Riis; Pjengaard, Søren; Glasdam, Stinne (Hans Reitzels Forlag, 2017-01-19)
    • Jusqu'où aller en réanimation ? Le point de vue du philosophe

      Espace éthique méditerranéen ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Le Coz, Pierre (HAL CCSD, 2011-10-14)
      National audience
    • Justice in health research : what is the role of evidence-based medicine?

      Macquarie University. Dept. of Philosophy; Rogers, Wendy; Ballantyne, Angela (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009)
      Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to facilitate access to up-todate, accurate information about the effectiveness of medical interventions, in order to improve human health. The quality of the research results available for EBM processes of synthesis and meta-analysis is critical to this process. If there are distortions or corruptions in the research process, EBM becomes a false prophet, collecting and propagating unreliable results. This article examines flaws in the current processes of research production and the implications of these for justice and for vulnerable patients, and explores possible solutions.
    • Justice in health research : what is the role of evidence-based medicine?

      Macquarie University. Dept. of Philosophy; Ballantyne, Angela; Rogers, Wendy (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2009)
      Evidence-based medicine (EBM) aims to facilitate access to up-todate, accurate information about the effectiveness of medical interventions, in order to improve human health. The quality of the research results available for EBM processes of synthesis and meta-analysis is critical to this process. If there are distortions or corruptions in the research process, EBM becomes a false prophet, collecting and propagating unreliable results. This article examines flaws in the current processes of research production and the implications of these for justice and for vulnerable patients, and explores possible solutions.