• KAMU HASTANELERİNDE VE ÖZEL HASTANELERDE ÇALIŞAN HEMŞİRELERİN İZHARCILIK (WHISTLEBLOWING) TUTUMLARI

      Fatma TAŞ; Ömer Lütfi ANTALYALI (Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, 2015-06-01)
      İzharcılık, bireylerin etik değerleri sonucu ortaya çıkmış ve örgütlerdeki etik dışı olayların olumsuz sonuçlarını engellemek amacıyla gerçekleştirilen bir eylemdir. Sağlık örgütlerinde insan hayatı söz konusu olduğundan izharcılık bu kurumlarda oldukça önemlidir. Bu çalışmada hemşirelerin kamu hastanelerinde veya özel hastanelerde çalışmalarının izharcılık tercihlerine etkisi olup olmadığının tespiti amaçlanmıştır. Çalışmada ayrıca; hemşirelerin izharcılık kararlarıyla etik değerleri arasındaki ilişki ele alınmıştır. Araştırmanın evreni Isparta'da devlet hastaneleri ve özel hastanelerde çalışan hemşirelerden oluşmaktadır. Araştırma kapsamında toplam 280 hemşireye ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmada İzharcılık ve Etik Felsefe Anketleri kullanılmıştır. Araştırma sonucunda özel hastanede çalışan hemşirelerin, kamu hastanesinde çalışan hemşirelere oranla daha fazla içsel ve anonim izharcılığı tercih ettikleri tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca özel hastanede çalışan hemşirelerin daha fazla relativist tavırlar sergileyeceği sonucuna ulaşılmış, etik değerler ile izharcılık arasında ilişki olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Hemşirelerin izharcılık davranışlarında etik değerlerinin belirleyici olduğu sonucuna ulaşılmıştır.
    • Kant on ethics and politics

      Sabrina P. Ramet (Lodz University Press, 2019-12-01)
      Best known for his ethical works, Immanuel Kant was part of the liberal Enlightenment and addressed most of the principal political issues of his day. Several of his major works were written in the wake of the storming of the Bastille in Paris, while Europe was engaged in the French Revolutionary Wars. His rejection of revolution but endorsement of the principles for which the French revolutionaries were fighting, as well as his plea for a federation of European states that would settle disputes peacefully, reflected his engagement with the controversies raised by the Revolution. But, although he could not countenance revolution, he declared that, once a revolutionary government has succeeded in establishing itself, citizens should obey the new government, rather than try to restore the ousted authorities.
    • KANT VE HEGEL’İN FELSEFESİNDE ETİK ANLAYIŞI

      Bünyamin Bezci̇ (Selçuk University, 2005-06-01)
      Bir aydınlanma filozofu olarak Kant, duyular üstü evreni aklın sınırları dahilinde açıklamaya çalışmıştır. Bu aydınlanmacı eğilim, etik kavramını doğadan ve toplumdan özerklik kavramı üzerine oturtmasında tezahür etmektedir. Hegel’in sorunu ise, toplumsal değerlerle bireyin çıkarlarının uzlaştığı bir senteze ulaşmaktır. Etik ilkeleri, koşullu ve kesin buyruklar olarak ikiye ayıran Kant için iyi irade dışında hiçbir kesin buyruk yoktur. Evrensel yasaların temelini de bu kesin buyruklar oluşturmaktadır. Hegel ise, soyut felsefi ilkelerin toplumun ihtiyaçlarını dikkate almayacağını savunmaktadır. Hegel gerçekte rasyonel ilkeler üzerine kurulan toplumların, bireylerde sadece kendi çıkarlarına uygun arzular oluşturacağını iddia etmektedir. Bu anlamda Hegel, hem öznel hem de toplumsal özgürlüğün bir arada varolabileceğini ifade etmektedir. Etik kavrayışına yaklaşımı açısından değerlendirildiğinde Kant’ın, özgürlüğü toplumdan ve doğadan özerklik olarak algıladığı iddia edilebilir. Hegel için ise amaç, toplum içinde özgür olabilmektir. Toplumsal özgürlüğün anahtarı ise, toplumun rasyonel düzenlenmesindedir.
    • KAP1-mediated epigenetic repression in the forebrain modulates behavioral vulnerability to stress.

      School of Life Sciences [Lausanne] ; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL); “Frontiers in Genetics” program ; Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)-National Center of Competence in Research; Institut de génétique et biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC) ; Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Brain Research Institute and Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ; University of Zürich [Zürich] (UZH); Jakobsson, Johan; Cordero, Maria Isabel; Bisaz, Reto; Groner, Anna,; Busskamp, Volker; Bensadoun, Jean-Charles; et al. (HAL CCSDElsevier, 2008-12-10)
      International audience
    • Karriärvägledaren som rustare mot risk : En kritisk policyanalys

      Svalfors af Ugglas, RitaLinn; Johansson Baurne, Malin (Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktikStockholms universitet, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik, 2020)
      Målet för denna studie är att undersöka hur god studie- och yrkesvägledning gestaltas i ett nationellt samtida myndighetsperspektiv och ett professionsetiskt perspektiv genom att granska två dokument. Därigenom avser studien utveckla fördjupad förståelse av hur sätten att tala om en social praktik formar sanningsanspråk. Genom Bacchis diskursanalytiska metodologi WPR undersöks via förslag och målbeskrivningar i utvalda offentliga dokument, vilka underliggande tankeramar och begrepp som används för att underbygga problemrepresentationer som framställande önskvärda och ändamålsenliga prioriteringar och hänsyn. Centrala resultat visar att mål för vägledning konstrueras som ett rustande mot risk. Verkan av tankefiguren om risk indikerar en instrumentell förståelse av vägledningsuppdraget när den framstår som inordnad i en arbetsmarknadspolitisk diskurs. Särskiljande rationaliteter uttolkas avseende professionens roll som i huvudsak rådgivande alternativt icke-rådgivande samt avseende innebörder av likvärdighet och hur klienters behov bör förstås, identifieras och tillgodoses.
    • Keep People Informed or Leave Them Alone? A Suggested Tool for Identifying Research Participants Who Rightly Want Only Limited Information

      Eriksson, S.; Helgesson, Gert (2016-01-08)
      People taking part in research vary in the extent to which they understand information concerning their participation. Since they may choose to limit the time and effort spent on such information, lack of understanding is not necessarily an ethical problem. Researchers who notice a lack of understanding are in the quandary of not knowing whether this is due to flaws in the information process or to participants' deliberate choices. We argue that the two explanations call for different responses.A tool for identifying those research participants who want limited information is presented. This consists of a restricted number of questions about trust in and appraisal of research, priority of time and privacy, and perception of a duty to participate. It is argued that an important group of participants who purposely lack understanding of the study can be identified with this tool. Some limitations to this approach are also discussed.
    • Keeping Medical Research Ethical

      Obyerodhyambo, Oby (2016-01-08)
    • Keisen Associates Tokyo: Researchers of Cancer Detection Dispute over IP Rights

      Andrea Hooker (2017-10-31)
      Biotechnology venture company MYTECH of Kobe, Japan filed a patent application for early detection technology for cancer. However, one of the listed co-applicants and researchers, Associate Professor Hiroaki Ito of Showa University Koto Toyosu Hospital (Tokyo), has accused MYTECH of robbing him of credit for what he had really invented first. Now the two parties are going to court to assert their stakes in the intellectual property rights at issue. Hearings will begin on September 28 as spokespersons for MYTECH and Ito present their cases. Meanwhile, dozens of medical institutions have begun offering use of PROTEO, an application of this technology. Ito claims to be the sole inventor, while his opponents (a father and son) in MYTECH argue that he only provided support in verifying their own ideas. There is dispute as to how the written agreement between Ito and MYTECH in 2012 was applied and whether Ito violated that agreement, where he supposedly affirmed that the IP rights to the invention belonged solely to MYTECH, when Ito began claiming that he had come up with the idea for the technology on his own, in research grant paperwork as well as for NHK news media. How will, or will, the court affirm the 2012 agreement on the IP rights in this case? Even in Japan where litigation is rare, we see the necessity for inventors and applicants to clarify responsibilities and rights. Hopefully, in either case this battle will not detract too much from the efforts both parties are making to find and fight cancer. Maybe even this litigation will help spread the word that such beneficial technology is available, while we hope that the outcome of this legal battle benefits open and fair sharing and protection of intellectual property rights in Japan’s future.
    • Kenyataan
 Integriti 
Penyelidik an
 Singapura [Singapore Statement on Research Integrity]

      Not available (2010)
      "Nilai
 dan
 manfaat
 penyelidikan
 sangat
 bergantung
 kepada
 integriti
 penyelidikan.
 Walaupun mungkin
 wujud nya 
perbezaan tentang 
cara 
bagaimana 
penyelid ikan 
dikelolakan 
dan 
dilaksanakan
 daripada 
segi nasional 
and 
disiplin,
 te rdapatnya
 juga 
prinsip 
dan
 tanggungjawab 
profesional
 yang
 merupakan 
teras 
bagi 
integriti 
penyelidikan
 sebagaimana 
ia dilaksanakan." ["The value and benefits of research are vitally dependent on the integrity of research. While there can be and are national and disciplinary differences in the way research is organized and conducted, there are also principles and professional responsibilities that are fundamental to the integrity of research wherever it is undertaken."]
    • Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

      Mobasher, Mina; Salari, Pooneh; Larijani, Bagher (Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press, 2013-03-17)
      Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods: At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings: The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors' viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child’s age and capacity upon application Conclusion: In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.
    • Key Ethical Issues in Pediatric Research: Islamic Perspective, Iranian Experience

      Mina Mobasher; Pooneh Salari; Bagher Larijani (Tehran University of Medical Sciences Press, 2014-05-09)
      Objective: The importance of pediatric research especially in the ethically proven trials resulted in considerable legislative attempts in association with compiling ethical guidelines. Because of children’s vulnerability conducting pediatric research raises different ethical issues; the two most important of which are informed consent and risk-benefit assessment. Differences in religious and socio-cultural context limit implication of ethical standards. Methods: At the aim of finding a solution we critically reviewed guidelines, and literatures as well as Islamic points in addition to comparing different viewpoints in application of ethical standards in pediatric research. Findings: The literature review showed that pediatric research guidelines and authors' viewpoints have the same basic ethical core, but there are some variations; depend on cultural, religious, and social differences. Furthermore, these standards have some limitations in defining informed consent according to child’s age and capacity upon application Conclusion: In this regard Islamic approach and definition about growth development and puberty sheds light and clarifies a clearer and more rational address to the issue.
    • Key issues in genetic research, testing, and patenting

      Brown, Barry F.; Sawa, Russell J. (2011-07-12)
    • Keystroke Dynamics Recognition based on Personal Data: A Comparative Experimental Evaluation Implementing Reproducible Research

      UAM. Departamento de Tecnología Electrónica y de las Comunicaciones; Análisis y Tratamiento de Voz y Señales Biométricas (ING EPS-002); Morales Moreno, Aythami; Falanga, Mario; Fiérrez, Julián; Sansone, Carlo; Ortega-García, Javier (Biblos-e ArchivoInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-12-07)
      Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. A. Morales, M. Falanga, J. Fierrez, C. Sansone and J. Ortega-Garcia, "Keystroke dynamics recognition based on personal data: A comparative experimental evaluation implementing reproducible research," 2015 IEEE 7th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Arlington, VA, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/BTAS.2015.7358772
    • Keystroke Dynamics Recognition based on Personal Data: A Comparative Experimental Evaluation Implementing Reproducible Research

      UAM. Departamento de Tecnología Electrónica y de las Comunicaciones; Análisis y Tratamiento de Voz y Señales Biométricas (ING EPS-002); Morales Moreno, Aythami; Falanga, Mario; Fiérrez, Julián; Sansone, Carlo; Ortega-García, Javier (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., 2016-12-07)
      Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works. A. Morales, M. Falanga, J. Fierrez, C. Sansone and J. Ortega-Garcia, "Keystroke dynamics recognition based on personal data: A comparative experimental evaluation implementing reproducible research," 2015 IEEE 7th International Conference on Biometrics Theory, Applications and Systems (BTAS), Arlington, VA, 2015, pp. 1-6. doi: 10.1109/BTAS.2015.7358772
    • Klinik araştırmalar hakkında yönetmelik çerçevesinde etik kurullar

      İstanbul Medipol Üniversitesi, Hukuk Fakültesi, Medeni Hukuk Anabilim Dalı; Somer, Pervin; Vatanoğlu, Elif (08.07.2019)
      Klinik araştırmalarda laboratuvar çalışmalarının sonuçlanmasını takiben hayvan üzerinde deney aşamasına geçilmektedir. Bu aşamanın olumlu sonuçlar vermesini takiben hasta ve/ veya gönüllü denekler üzerinde deneyler başlar. Hayvan ve insan üzerindeki deneylerin etik ilkelere ve hukuka uygunluğu etik kurullar tarafından denetlenir. Yeni Klinik Araştırmalar Hakkında Yönetmelik 2011 yılının Ağustos ayında yürürlüğe girmiştir. Bu düzenleme AB uygulamalarına paralel hazırlanmıştır. Yönetmelik “klinik araştırma” “gönüllü” ve “etik kurul” ekseni üzerinde hazırlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada insan üzerindeki deney ve denemelerde denetleme görevi yapan etik kurullar ele alınacaktır.
    • Knowledge & attitudes of mental health professionals regarding psychiatric research

      N N Mishra; Triptish Bhatia; Nandini Kumar; Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar; Lisa S Parker; Smita N Deshpande (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2014-01-01)
      Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied.
    • Knowledge & attitudes of mental health professionals regarding psychiatric research

      N N Mishra; Triptish Bhatia; Nandini Kumar; Vishwajit L Nimgaonkar; Lisa S Parker; Smita N Deshpande (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2014-01-01)
      Background & objectives: Mental health professionals have varied attitudes and views regarding informed consent and confidentiality protections in psychiatric research and clinical care. The present study was designed to understand the knowledge and views of mental health professionals (MHPs) regarding informed consent and confidentiality protection practices. Methods: Mental health professionals (n=121) who were members of the Delhi Psychiatric Society, were invited to participate in this questionnaire-based study of their knowledge and attitudes regarding informed consent and confidentiality. Half of them expressed willingness to discuss participation and gave initial oral consent (n=62); of these, 31 gave written informed consent to participate and completed the questionnaires. The questionnaires included both forced choice (yes / no / do not know) and open-ended questions. Questionnaires content reflected prominent guidelines on informed consent and confidentiality protection. Results: Attitudes of the majority of the participants towards informed consent and confidentiality were in line with ethical principles and guidelines. All expressed the opinion that confidentiality should generally be respected and that if confidentiality was breached, there could be mistrust of the professional by the patient/participant. The mean knowledge scores regarding informed consent and confidentiality were 8.55 ± 1.46 and 8.16 ± 1.29, respectively. Interpretation & conclusions: The participating mental health professionals appeared to have adequate knowledge of basic ethical guidelines concerning informed consent and confidentiality. Most respondents were aware of ethical issues in research. Given the small sample size and low response rate, the significance of the quantitative analysis must be regarded with modesty, and qualitative analysis of open-ended questions may be more valuable for development of future research. Increased efforts to involve mental health professionals in research on ethical concerns pertinent to their work must be made, and the actual practices of these professionals with regard to ethical guidelines need to be studied.