• Qu'est ce qu'être mère à l'âge de l'assistance médicale à la procréation

      Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Espace éthique méditerranéen ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Feuillet-Liger Brigitte ; Crespo-Brauner Maria-Claudia; Le Coz, Pierre (HAL CCSDBruylant, 2014)
      National audience
    • Qu'est ce que dépister ? Approche éthique et conceptuelle.

      Espace éthique méditerranéen ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Cochat P.; Le Coz, Pierre (HAL CCSDDoin Editions, 2010)
    • Qu'est-ce qu'accompagner ?

      Espace éthique méditerranéen ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Le Coz, Pierre (HAL CCSD, 2011-09-29)
      National audience
    • Qualitative evaluation of a deferred consent process in paediatric emergency research: a PREDICT study

      Furyk, Jeremy; McBain-Rigg, Kristin; Watt, Kerrianne; Emeto, Theophilus I.; Franklin, Richard C.; Franklin, Donna; Schibler, Andreas; Dalziel, Stuart R.; Babl, Franz E.; Wilson, Catherine; et al. (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2017-11-01)
      Background A challenge of conducting research in critically ill children is that the therapeutic window for the intervention may be too short to seek informed consent prior to enrolment. In specific circumstances, most international ethical guidelines allow for children to be enrolled in research with informed consent obtained later, termed deferred consent (DC) or retrospective consent. There is a paucity of data on the attitudes of parents to this method of enrolment in paediatric emergency research.
    • Qualitative Freedom - Autonomy in Cosmopolitan Responsibility

      Claus Dierksmeier (Springer, 2019)
      In the light of growing political and religious fundamentalism, this open access book defends the idea of freedom as paramount for the attempt to find common ethical ground in the age of globality. The book sets out to examine as yet unexhausted ways to boost the resilience of the principle of liberalism. Critically reviewing the last 200 years of the philosophy of freedom, it revises the principle of liberty in order to revive it. It discusses many different aspects that fall under its three main topics: the metaphysics of freedom, quantitative freedom and qualitative freedom. Open societies worldwide have come under increasing pressure in the last decades. The belief that politics and markets fare best when guided by the principle of liberty presently faces multiple challenges such as terrorism, climate warming, inequality, populism, and financial crises. In the view of its critics, the idea of freedom no longer offers adequate guidance to meet these challenges and should be partially corrected or even entirely replaced by countervailing values. Against the reduction of freedom to the merely quantitative question as to how much liberties individuals call their own, this book draws attention to the qualitative concerns which and whose opportunities society should foster. It argues that, correctly understood, the idea of liberty commits us to defend as well as advance the freedom of each and every world citizen.
    • Qualitative Freedom - Autonomy in Cosmopolitan Responsibility

      Dierksmeier, Claus (Springer, 2019)
      In the light of growing political and religious fundamentalism, this open access book defends the idea of freedom as paramount for the attempt to find common ethical ground in the age of globality. The book sets out to examine as yet unexhausted ways to boost the resilience of the principle of liberalism. Critically reviewing the last 200 years of the philosophy of freedom, it revises the principle of liberty in order to revive it. It discusses many different aspects that fall under its three main topics: the metaphysics of freedom, quantitative freedom and qualitative freedom. Open societies worldwide have come under increasing pressure in the last decades. The belief that politics and markets fare best when guided by the principle of liberty presently faces multiple challenges such as terrorism, climate warming, inequality, populism, and financial crises. In the view of its critics, the idea of freedom no longer offers adequate guidance to meet these challenges and should be partially corrected or even entirely replaced by countervailing values. Against the reduction of freedom to the merely quantitative question as to how much liberties individuals call their own, this book draws attention to the qualitative concerns which and whose opportunities society should foster. It argues that, correctly understood, the idea of liberty commits us to defend as well as advance the freedom of each and every world citizen.
    • Qualitative Research and Ethics

      Wolff-Michael Roth (FQS, 2004-05-01)
      Although ethics as a field and topic of human inquiry has a long history, concerns about research ethics are more recent. This editorial is intended to frame the McGINN and BOSACKI contribution on educating future researchers in research ethics that appears in this FQS issue. I provide a brief historical context for recent developments regarding research ethics and provide a classification of practitioners, who, in one way or another, have to deal with ethical issues in research. I end with a call for a greater salience of discussions concerning issues of research ethics, which should contribute to evolve our scientific community. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040275
    • Qualitative research ethics on the spot: Not only on the desktop

      Øye, Christine; Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Glasdam, Stinne (Sage Publications, 2015)
      Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position.<br> Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies, the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas.<br> Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research.<br> Discussion and conclusion: Research ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop.
    • Qualitative research ethics on the spot: Not only on the desktop

      Øye, Christine; Sørensen, Nelli Øvre; Glasdam, Stinne (SAGE Publications, 2015-02-09)
      Background: The increase in medical ethical regulations and bureaucracy handled by institutional review boards and healthcare institutions puts the researchers using qualitative methods in a challenging position. Method: Based on three different cases from three different research studies, the article explores and discusses research ethical dilemmas. Objectives and ethical considerations: First, and especially, the article addresses the challenges for gatekeepers who influence the informant’s decisions to participate in research. Second, the article addresses the challenges in following research ethical guidelines related to informed consent and doing no harm. Third, the article argues for the importance of having research ethical guidelines and review boards to question and discuss the possible ethical dilemmas that occur in qualitative research. Discussion and conclusion: Research ethics must be understood in qualitative research as relational, situational, and emerging. That is, that focus on ethical issues and dilemmas has to be paid attention on the spot and not only at the desktop.
    • Qualitative Research in Sport Sciences: Is the Biomedical Ethics Model Applicable?

      Steve Olivier; Lesley Fishwick (FQS, 2003-01-01)
      Research in sports science has historically been grounded in positivist traditions. This means that ethics committees may not be adequately sensitized to the ethical problems posed by qualitative research. Qualitative researchers may thus be disadvantaged in the research approval process. Our paper argues that the traditional biomedical ethics model may not always be appropriate in evaluating qualitative proposals. Due to the nature of its methods, qualitative work may have emergent and ongoing ethical issues that require consultation and resolution. We argue that, contrary to the judgements of many ethics committees, methods such as deception and covert observation can be justified if certain conditions are met. In reaffirming a commitment to the overarching ethical principle of respect for persons, we conclude that researchers need to recognize and plan for ethical issues in their work. Likewise, ethics committees need to recognize that qualitative work poses unique problems, but that these need not necessarily be insurmountable obstacles to project approval. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0301121
    • Qualitative Research in Sport Sciences: Is the Biomedical Ethics Model Applicable?

      Olivier, Steve; Fishwick, Lesley (DEU, 2010-03-11)
      Traditionell spielten positivistische Ansätze in den Sportwissenschaften eine tragende Rolle. Dies bedeutet, dass Ethikkomitees nicht hinreichend sensibilisiert sein können für ethische Probleme, die durch qualitative Forschungsarbeiten aufgeworfen werden, wodurch umgekehrt qualitative Projektvorhaben benachteiligt werden können. In unserem Beitrag versuchen wir zu zeigen, dass das traditionelle biomedizinische Ethikmodell nur begrenzt taugt, wenn es um die Begutachtung von qualitativen Forschungsanträgen geht. So kann die Besonderheit qualitativer Methodik ethische Fragen aufwerfen, die der Beratung und nachträglichen Lösung im Forschungsprozess bedürfen. Auch gehen wir – im Unterschied zur Position vieler Ethikkomitees – davon aus, dass Methoden, die Täuschung oder verdeckte Beobachtung einschließen, unter bestimmten Bedingungen gerechtfertigt sein können. Dem übergeordneten Prinzip des Respekts gegen Personen verpflichtet kommen wir zu dem Schluss, dass Forschende ethischen Belangen in ihrer Forschungsarbeit hinreichend Raum geben sollten. Umgekehrt sollten Ethikkomitees akzeptieren, dass qualitative Forschung besondere Probleme aufwirft, die nicht per se unüberbrückbare Hindernisse für die Bewilligung von Forschungsvorhaben sein müssen.
    • Qualitative Research in Sport Sciences—An Introduction

      Reinhard Stelter; Andrew Sparkes; Ina Hunger (FQS, 2003-01-01)
      Qualitative research has its own particular strengths and therefore is able to grasp the multidimensionality of meanings, contexts, unanticipated phenomena, processes and explanations which can be found in the world of sport, games and physical activity. The article gives an overview over the different subject fields and articles covered by this special issue of the Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research on sport science(s). URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030124
    • Qualitative Research to Enhance the Evaluation of Results-Based Financing Programmes

      Kielmann, Karina; Cataldo, Fabian (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-04-11)
      This Discussion Paper presents the
 approach, findings, and recommendations from a desk review
 of the qualitative research conducted within Results-Based
 Financing programmes (RBF) under the Health Results
 Innovations Trust Fund (HRITF). The review included 17
 studies conducted in Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, DRC,
 Ethiopia, Haiti, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Nigeria, Rwanda,
 Tajikistan, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The studies
 reveal a body of high quality work that is consistent with
 the conceptual framework of RBF schemes, supported by
 political will, resources, and research capacity.
 Strengthening the added value of qualitative inquiry in
 on-going and future qualitative studies may be enabled by
 small shifts in thinking and practice, in line with a
 qualitative research paradigm. First, in order to better
 ground research in an existing country and system specific
 context, some interrogation of constructs and posited
 relationships in the existing conceptual framework for
 intervention/evaluation may be required. Second, to enable
 more in-depth and richer data that documents working
 practices and relations under RBF schemes, training of local
 researchers should place stronger emphasis on entry to the
 field, gaining trust, building rapport, and sustaining a
 dialogue with key informants. Third, smaller, more intensive
 and focused studies targeting fewer sites and smaller
 samples - but addressing a wider range of methods and
 informants within the health system - are likely to yield
 richer data that can support the understanding of how health
 workers and managers are responding to schemes, and what
 impact schemes have on service volumes and outputs.
    • Qualitative Secondary Analysis in Austere Times: Ethical, Professional and Methodological Considerations

      Carrie Coltart; Karen Henwood; Fiona Shirani (FQS, 2013-01-01)
      Recent debates in qualitative secondary analysis (QSA) have sought to move beyond polarising arguments in order to develop more nuanced perspectives on the epistemological, analytical and practical opportunities and challenges associated with its methods. This is generally to be welcomed, although there are also signs of unhelpful primary/secondary divisions finding new forms of expression. Focusing on definitional issues and wider contexts of QSA helps to explain the possible sources of ongoing tensions while affording tentative insights into potential opportunities and synergies across the primary/secondary spectrum. Building on work undertaken within the Timescapes Qualitative Longitudinal study, the article also highlights some under-examined costs and risks that may come along with new opportunities created by secondary analysis. Issues of over-privileging secondary analysis claims, making and the timing of qualitative secondary analysis are foregrounded as requiring further consideration if researchers are to take seriously lingering suspicions and fears about qualitative secondary analysis and not dismiss them as simply reactionary or self-serving. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1301181
    • [Quality of anonymous delivery procedures: analysis of practices and ethical issues.]

      Maternité Port-Royal [CHU Cochin] ; Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) (APHP)-CHU Cochin [AP-HP]; Laboratoire d'éthique médicale et médecine légale (LEM) ; Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5 (UPD5); Fassy-Colcombet, Marion; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Moutel, Grégoire; Cabrol, Dominique; Hervé, Christian (HAL CCSDElsevier Masson, 2006-11)
      OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess implementation of procedures for anonymous delivery and also to determine the awareness of the medical team. MATERIAL: and method. We reviewed retrospectively all deliveries performed in a Paris maternity ward during the years 2000-2003 where the mother requested application of the anonymous procedure. A questionnaire was also addressed to all physicians and midwives in the same institution in order to evaluate their knowledge of the procedures available and their point of view. RESULTS: Among the seventeen deliveries examined, the anonymous procedure was not completely fulfilled for 11 since the name of the mother could be identified. The quality of the files depended on the date at which the decision to use the anonymous procedure was made: delivery was more anonymous when the decision was made at the first consultation, less so when made later. The questionnaires revealed that professionals lacked information and were insufficiently aware of the procedures available. CONCLUSION: It appears useful to establish a standard procedure in order to better protect the parturient's wishes and comply with French law (4 March 2002). This point is particularly important since at the infant's majority, he/she may request access to personal information contained in the medical file.
    • Quality of life of early school-age French children born preterm: a cohort study.

      Santé Publique et maladies Chroniques : Qualité de vie Concepts, Usages et Limites, Déterminants (SPMC) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM); Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES); Département de Pédiatrie-Néonatologie ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital Nord [CHU - APHM]; Laboratoire de Santé Publique ; Université de la Méditerranée - Aix-Marseille 2; Service d'Obstétrique-Gynécologie [Marseille] ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)-CHU Marseille- Hôpital Nord [CHU - APHM]; Berbis, J.; Einaudi, M.-A.; Simeoni, M. C.; Brevaut-Malaty, V.; Auquier, Pascal; et al. (HAL CCSDElsevier, 2012-05)
      International audience
    • Quality of written information in biomedical research in France.

      CIC - Grenoble ; INSERM - Université Joseph Fourier (UJF); Université Joseph-Fourier - Grenoble I; Jean-Luc CRACOWSKI(Jean-Luc.cracowski@ujf-grenoble.fr); CIC Lyon; CIC Strasbourg; CIC Nancy; CIC Toulouse; CIC Saint-Etienne; URC Créteil; Kerlan-Paris, Adeline (HAL CCSD, 2008-10-14)
      The Informed Consent Form (ICF) is very important in biomedical research, so its quality is crucial. However, many publications emphasize its low readability and the difficulties to understand it. We studied the French documents. In a first step, we showed that the lexicosyntactic readability of the informed consent forms was lower than a university level. We then described that ethic committees did not improve lexicosyntactic readability and that they increased the length and complexity of the document. We after compared the readability and the density of ICF and pieces of popular science. The ICF have a low readability level and a low density. Thanks to our questionnaire validated, the QCFic, we showed that improving the lexicosyntactic readability or asking a working group to correct the ICF allows a better understanding in healthy volunteers . However, in patients, we tested the two techniques but no one <br />Has an effect on comprehension. It therefore seems necessary to conduct a study in a real situation, in factorial plan, to evaluate on the one hand the lexicosyntactic modification of ICF, on the other hand, the intervention of a third person in the process of Information.
    • Quantitative social historical research in the Netherlands: past, present and future

      Boonstra, Onno; Gales, Ben (DEU, 2008-12-04)
      Quantitative sozialgeschichtliche Forschung wurde in den Niederlanden in der Wageningse-Schule entwickelt. Schon in den 50er Jahren starteten Slicher van Bath und ihre Mitarbeiter mit der Analyse sozialer wirtschaftlicher und kultureller Veränderungen, in einer landwirtschaftlich strukturierten Gesellschaft von einem historisch demographischen Blickwinkel her. Ihre Forschungsmethode war der Annales-Tradition ähnlich. In den 70er Jahren wurde der Anwendungsbereich der quantitativen sozialgeschichtlichen Forschung breiter. Zum einen weil die Einführung einer strukturellen Methode historischer Forschung erfolgte, zum anderen weil sich die Möglichkeiten der Computerisierung beschleunigten. Die Beschreibung einiger aktueller Forschungsthemen und die statistischen Verfahren, die benutzt wurden, führten zu dem Schluß, das quantitative sozialgeschichtliche Forschung, obwohl eine sinnvolle Fortführung historiographischer Forschungsmethoden darstellend, nicht zum Kern der Geschichtswissenschaft zählen. Dies ist ein ernsthafter Rückschlag für die Ausbildung von Geschichtsstudenten in diesem Forschungsfeld. Darüber hinaus sind die finanziellen Ressourcen begrenzt, deshalb ist die Zukunft auf quantitativer sozialgeschichtlicher Forschung in den Niederlanden vergleichsweise eingeschränkt. (KW)
    • Quantitative valuation placed by children and teenagers on participation in two hypothetical research scenarios

      Funnell, D; Fertleman, C; Carrey, L; Brierley, J (BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2012-11-01)