• Race and ethnicity in medical research: requirements meet reality

      Winker, Margaret A. (2011-07-12)
      Race and ethnicity are commonly reported variables in biomedical research, but how they were determined is often not described and the rationale for analyzing them is often not provided. JAMA improved the reporting of these factors by implementing a policy and procedure. However, still lacking are careful consideration of what is actually being measured when race/ethnicity is described, consistent terminology, hypothesis-driven justification for analyzing race/ethnicity, and a consistent and generalizable measurement of socioeconomic status. Furthermore, some studies continue to use race/ethnicity as a proxy for genetics. Research into appropriate measures of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors, as well as education of researchers regarding issues of race/ethnicity, is necessary to clarify the meaning of race/ethnicity in the biomedical literature.
    • Race and ethnicity in medical research: requirements meet reality

      Winker, Margaret A. (2011-07-12)
      Race and ethnicity are commonly reported variables in biomedical research, but how they were determined is often not described and the rationale for analyzing them is often not provided. JAMA improved the reporting of these factors by implementing a policy and procedure. However, still lacking are careful consideration of what is actually being measured when race/ethnicity is described, consistent terminology, hypothesis-driven justification for analyzing race/ethnicity, and a consistent and generalizable measurement of socioeconomic status. Furthermore, some studies continue to use race/ethnicity as a proxy for genetics. Research into appropriate measures of race/ethnicity and socioeconomic factors, as well as education of researchers regarding issues of race/ethnicity, is necessary to clarify the meaning of race/ethnicity in the biomedical literature.
    • Racing for COVID-19 vaccine and cure: Lessons and tragedies in human subject research

      Amar M Salam; Alison S Carr (Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications, 2020-01-01)
      Pressured by the enormous human and economic costs of the COVID-19 pandemic, certain countries and political figures have advocated the use of drugs and vaccines that did not go through the required regulatory stages of the development. Although the reason for bypassing these stages in a race to produce a treatment and vaccine for the COVID-19 patients could have been caused by good intentions to stop the human suffering from the pandemic, nonetheless, history has taught us that the results of this action could be catastrophic. In this article, we briefly review the lessons and tragedies in the evolution of human subject research regulations emphasizing the need for the proper evaluation of drugs and vaccines for COVID-19.
    • Raça, cor e etnia em estudos epidemiológicos sobre populações brasileiras: revisão sistemática na base PubMed Race, color and ethnicity in epidemiologic studies carried out with Brazilian populations: systematic review on the PubMed database

      Juliana Fernandes Kabad; João Luiz Bastos; Ricardo Ventura Santos (Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, 2012-01-01)
      O objetivo foi analisar o uso das variáveis raça, cor e etnia em estudos epidemiológicos sobre populações brasileiras. Trata-se de revisão sistemática, conduzida na base PubMed,entre janeiro de 2000 e julho de 2010. Para o conjunto dos trabalhos revisados, aplicou-se ficha com questões sobre seus objetivos e a relevância da classificação étnico-racial em suas análises, características sócio-demográficas e aspectos da identificação étnico-racial das populações investigadas, bem como o seguimento de recomendações quanto ao uso das classificações de raça, cor e etnia. Dos 1.174 artigos identificados, 151 foram elegíveis para a revisão. Maiores proporções de cada um dos seguintes aspectos foram observadas nos artigos em que a identificação étnico-racial ocupou papel central em suas análises - destes, 18% justificaram o emprego das categorias; 16% consideraram a classificação étnico-racial como fluida e relativa ao contexto da produção dos dados; 65% descreveram o método da classificação étnico-racial; 17% entenderam esta classificação como medida de variabilidade genética; 26% interpretaram a variável como fator de risco para o desfecho em questão; 47% consideraram fatores socioeconômicos na interpretação das desigualdades étnico-raciais; e 27% incluíram tais fatores no ajuste de modelos estatísticos. Apenas dois estudos explicitaram o conceito, que embasou o uso da variável étnico-racial. Uma proporção expressiva dos estudos epidemiológicos analisados não segue os critérios mínimos que vêm sendo sugeridos quanto ao uso de variáveis relacionadas à classificação étnico-racial, de modo que este aspecto deve ser aperfeiçoado nas pesquisas em Saúde Coletiva.<br>This paper aims to analyze the use of the variables race, color and ethnicity in epidemiologic studies, carried out with Brazilian populations. This is a systematic review, conducted in the PubMed bibliographic database, on papers published between January 2000 and July 2010. A data extraction form was used to obtain data from all individual studies, such as their objectives, the relevance of the racial/ethnic classification in their analyses, participants' socio-demographic characteristics, including aspects related to the methods of racial classification, as well as the adherence to a set of recommendations on the use of race, color and ethnicity in biomedical publications. After initially identifying 1,174 references, 151 were included in the review. Higher proportions of each of the following results were observed among papers in which the racial/ethnic classification was central to their analyses - of these, 18% justified the use of racial/ethnic categories; 16% regarded racial/ethnic classifications as context-dependent and fluid; 65% described the methods adopted for racial/ethnic classification; 17% took the racial/ethnic classification as a proxy for genetic variation; 26% considered such classification as a risk factor for health outcomes; 47% considered socio-economic factors in the interpretation of racial/ethnic inequalities in health; and 27% adjusted these racial/ethnic disparities for socio-economic factors in their statistical models. Only two studies elucidated the concept underlying the use of race, color or ethnicity. An expressive amount of the reviewed epidemiologic studies does not follow minimum established criteria on the use of variables regarding racial/ethnic classification, such that this should be urgently improved in public health research.
    • Radiation Research in the Va Involving Human Subjects

      United States. Congress. House. Committee on Veterans' Affairs, 2016-01-08
    • Raising student teachers’awareness around issues of professional conduct : an action research project

      Robertson, Sally-Ann; Chishimba, Felix Nkalamo (Rhodes UniversityFaculty of Education, Education, 2014)
      The teaching profession, like many other professions, has rules and regulations that guide the conduct of its members. Teachers and those who aspire to take up teaching are expected to conduct themselves and discharge their duties in an impeccably professional manner. However, there is concern especially among education authorities regarding unprofessional conduct of some of those employed in schools and colleges. This action research study is a response to this concern. Its goal was to explore issues of professional conduct as part of the induction process of new members entering the teaching profession, and to thereby develop a better understanding of how best to raise student teachers’ awareness around professional conduct issues. The study used a qualitative research framework located in the interpretive paradigm. Three theoretical frameworks informed the design and subsequent analysis of the findings, namely, Burn’s transformational leadership, Mezirow’s transformative learning and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning. Two cycles of workshops around issues of professional conduct were conducted over a period of four weeks with a sample of 40 pre-service student teachers: final year students enrolled in the college’s three year Diploma in Education programme, all members of a science education class. Data collection strategies used were semi-structured interviews, observation and the use of reflective journals, among others. Analysis of the data involved identification of emerging themes and patterns. Initial findings indicate that prior to the commencement of the cycles of action research, participants appeared to have a limited understanding around issues of professional conduct, but that this changed as they participated in the workshops. The data of the study suggest that further steps need to be taken to establish optimal ways of incorporating professional conduct issues into the college’s teaching curriculum.
    • Raising student teachers’awareness around issues of professional conduct : an action research project

      Chishimba, Felix Nkalamo (Rhodes UniversityFaculty of Education, Education, 2014)
      The teaching profession, like many other professions, has rules and regulations that guide the conduct of its members. Teachers and those who aspire to take up teaching are expected to conduct themselves and discharge their duties in an impeccably professional manner. However, there is concern especially among education authorities regarding unprofessional conduct of some of those employed in schools and colleges. This action research study is a response to this concern. Its goal was to explore issues of professional conduct as part of the induction process of new members entering the teaching profession, and to thereby develop a better understanding of how best to raise student teachers’ awareness around professional conduct issues. The study used a qualitative research framework located in the interpretive paradigm. Three theoretical frameworks informed the design and subsequent analysis of the findings, namely, Burn’s transformational leadership, Mezirow’s transformative learning and Kolb’s theory of experiential learning. Two cycles of workshops around issues of professional conduct were conducted over a period of four weeks with a sample of 40 pre-service student teachers: final year students enrolled in the college’s three year Diploma in Education programme, all members of a science education class. Data collection strategies used were semi-structured interviews, observation and the use of reflective journals, among others. Analysis of the data involved identification of emerging themes and patterns. Initial findings indicate that prior to the commencement of the cycles of action research, participants appeared to have a limited understanding around issues of professional conduct, but that this changed as they participated in the workshops. The data of the study suggest that further steps need to be taken to establish optimal ways of incorporating professional conduct issues into the college’s teaching curriculum.
    • Raising the Bar in Research Ethics

      Meslin, Eric M. (2016-01-09)
    • Rapport and Respect: Negotiating Ethical Relations Between Researcher and Participant

      Guillemin, Marilys; Heggen, Kristin (2016-01-09)
      Qualitative research is largely dependent on building good interpersonal relations between researcher and participant. This is necessary for generating rich data, while at the same time ensuring respect is maintained between researcher and participant. We argue for a better understanding of researcher-participant relations in research practice. Codes of ethics, although important, do not address these kinds of ethical challenges. Negotiating the ethical relations between researcher and participant is paramount in maintaining ethical rigour in qualitative research. In this paper we propose concepts that can assist in understanding how the ethics of research relations are negotiated in practice; the 'zone of the untouchable' from the Danish philosopher, Løgstrup, is combined with the notion of 'ethical mindfulness'. We argue how and why these concepts in tandem can heighten awareness and offer ways to address the ethically important moments in research.
    • Rational choice and moral intent in the responsible conduct of research

      Gordon, Anita M. (Digital Repository @ Iowa State University, 2012-01-01)
      Academic misconduct among students has been the focus of a tremendous amount of literature for a number of decades (Crown & Spiller, 1998). However, academic misconduct among faculty has received much less empirical attention (Steneck, 2006). This research was designed to contribute to the literature by empirically examining the possible effects of rational and moral judgments on faculty research misconduct, with a focus on the social sciences. The purpose of the study was to explore the application of a particular theory of human behavior - Rational Choice Theory - to the phenomenon of misconduct in research and to do so in the context of the James Rest, et al., moral decision-making framework. A national survey was conducted involving 2,070 faculty members in sociology and psychology departments from a random sample of research-intensive universities, which resulted in a survey sample of 581 respondents. The relationship between moral assessments and rational choice measures of the perceived likelihood of detection and sanctions was explored using scenarios involving clear or ambiguous research misconduct. Participants rated the likelihood they themselves would take the action described in the scenario under the same circumstances while also rating the moral and rational choice features of the situation. Multiple regression was used to predict the effect of moral and rational choice assessments on the probability of engaging in misconduct. Results showed significant effects for moral judgment as well as potential shame and embarrassment on reducing misconduct, but not for likelihood of detection or external sanctions.
    • Rationale and protocol for the After Diabetes Diagnosis REsearch Support System (ADDRESS): an incident and high risk type 1 diabetes UK cohort study

      Walkey, HC; Kaur, A; Bravis, V; Godsland, IF; Misra, S; Williams, AJK; Bingley, PJ; Dunger, David Brian; Oliver, N; Johnston, DG (BMJ Publishing GroupBMJ Open, 2017-12-01)
      INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes is heterogeneous in its presentation and progression. Variations in clinical presentation between children and adults, and with ethnic group warrant further study in the UK to improve understanding of this heterogeneity. Early interventions to limit beta cell damage in type 1 diabetes are undergoing evaluation, but recruitment is challenging. The protocol presented describes recruitment of people with clinician-assigned, new-onset type 1 diabetes to understand the variation in their manner of clinical presentation, to facilitate recruitment into intervention studies and to create an open-access resource of data and biological samples for future type 1 diabetes research. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Using the National Institute for Health Research Clinical Research Network, patients >5 years of age diagnosed clinically with type 1 diabetes (and their siblings) are recruited within 6 months of diagnosis. Participants agree to have their clinical, laboratory and demographic data stored on a secure database, for their clinical progress to be monitored using information held by NHS Digital, and to be contacted about additional research, in particular immunotherapy and other interventions. An optional blood sample is taken for islet autoantibody measurement and storage of blood and DNA for future analyses. Data will be analysed statistically to describe the presentation of incident type 1 diabetes in a contemporary UK population. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the independent NHS Research Ethics Service. Results will be presented at national and international meetings and submitted for publication to peer-reviewed journals.
    • Razón, derecho y poder : reflexiones sobre la democracia y la política

      Internet Archive; Serrano Caldera, Alejandro (Managua, Nicaragua : Editorial Hispamer, 2004-01-01)
      Includes bibliographical references (p. 137-140)
    • Rättigheter och skyldigheter

      Andersson, Dan-Erik (Liber, 2011)
    • (Re)configuring research value: international commercial clinical trials in the Russian Federation

      Zvonareva, Olga; Engel, Nora; Kutishenko, Natalia; Horstman, Klasien (2017-09)
      <