• Table of Contents

      AA. VV. (LED Edizioni Universitarie, 2018-07-01)
    • Table ronde 6 - Quelles sont les responsabilités de la société vis-à-vis des personnes atteintes de maladies rares ?

      Service de Neurologie Pédiatrique ; Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Marseille (APHM)- Hôpital de la Timone [CHU - APHM] (TIMONE); Anthropologie bio-culturelle, Droit, Ethique et Santé (ADES) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-EFS ALPES MEDITERRANEE-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Centre de Sociologie de l'Innovation i3 (CSI i3) ; MINES ParisTech - École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris-PSL Research University (PSL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Roche, Gilles; Bordon-Pallier, Florence; Chabrol, Brigitte; Le Coz, Pierre; Lapointe, Anne-Sophie; Rabeharisoa, Vololona (HAL CCSDEDP Sciences, 2016-04)
      International audience
    • Tagungsbericht: "Scientific Integrity in Qualitative Research" (SCIQUAL) Seminar 2017

      Faculty of Social and Behavioural Sciences, Utrecht University, The Netherlands; Nair, Lakshmi Balachandran (Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social ResearchForum Qualitative Sozialforschung / Forum: Qualitative Social Research, 2017-11-29)
      Das "Scientific Integrity in Qualitative Research" (SCIQUAL) Seminar 2017 befasste sich mit den Grundregeln guter wissenschaftlicher Praxis und der Frage, inwieweit Wissenschaftler/innen ihnen (nicht) folgen. Insbesondere für die qualitative Sozialforschung, in der standardisierte Maße  der Qualitätssicherung fehlen, ist wissenschaftliche Integrität von hervorgehobener Bedeutung. Dies umso mehr, als Forderungen des publish or perish Forschende veranlassen, konkrete und evidenzbasierte Beiträge in erheblichem Tempo zu produzieren. Auch finanzielle Zwänge, Wettbewerb etc. können sie in Versuchung bringen, erfolgversprechende Strategien zu favorisieren unter Inkaufnahme unfairer Forschungspraktiken. Derartige Entwicklungen sind alarmierend, da "gute" Wissenschaft glaubwürdig, authentisch und vertrauenswürdig sein und ethischen Grundsätzen folgen sollte. Unter dem Oberbegriff wissenschaftlicher Integrität diskutierten die Teilnehmenden des SCIQUAL-Seminars 2017 Themen wie Reflexivität, Ethik und Fälle von Devianz.
    • Take Away Their Hammer: Logical and Ethical Problems in Range and Cotton's "Reports of Assent and Permission in Research With Children: Illustrations and Suggestions"

      Friman, Patrick C. (2015-05-05)
      Range and Cotton (1995) showed that many of the articles reviewed in their study did not include a line specifying institutional review board-approved procurement of informed parental permission and child assent for child research. Range and Cotton stated that the absence of the line suggests a lack of sensitivity to permission/assent issues, implied that many authors of the articles did not obtain permission/assent, and said those who did but did not report it were camouflaging those who did not. In this article, the logic of these points is refuted, the ethics of the Range and Cotton study are questioned, and its potential divisiveness is lamented.
    • Taking Due Care: Moral Obligations in Dual Use Research

      Kuhlau, Frida; Eriksson, Stefan; Evers, Kathinka; Höglund, Anna T. (2016-01-08)
      In the past decade, the perception of a bioterrorist threat has increased and created a demand on life scientists to consider the potential security implications of dual use research. This article examines a selection of proposed moral obligations for life scientists that have emerged to meet these concerns and the extent to which they can be considered reasonable. It also describes the underlying reasons for the concerns, how they are managed, and their implications for scientific values. Five criteria for what constitutes preventable harm are suggested and a number of proposed obligations for life scientists are considered against these criteria, namely, the obligations to prevent bioterrorism; to engage in response activities; to consider negative implications of research; not to publish or share sensitive information; to oversee and limit access to dangerous material; and to report activities of concern. Although bioterrorism might be perceived as an imminent threat, the analysis illustrates that this is beyond the responsibility of life scientists either to prevent or to respond to. Among the more reasonable obligations are duties to consider potential negative implications of one's research, protect access to sensitive material, technology and knowledge, and report activities of concern. Responsibility, therefore, includes obligations concerned with preventing foreseeable and highly probable harm. A central conclusion is that several of the proposed obligations are reasonable, although not unconditionally.
    • Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings

      Devakumar, Delan; Brotherton, Helen; Halbert, Jay; Clarke, Andrew (BioMed Central, 2013)
      "Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration"
    • Taking perspectivity seriously: a suggestion of a conceptual framework for linking theory and methods in longitudinal and comparative research

      Baur, Nina (DEU, 2010-10-12)
      'Einer der Hauptsstreitpunkte in der Debatte darum, ob sich die Soziologie wissenschaftstheoretisch eher positivistisch oder konstruktivistisch verorten solle, ist die Frage, ob und wie (stark) die Subjektivität des Forschers dessen Forschung(sergebnisse) verformt. In der Geschichtswissenschaft scheint dieses Problem seit langem gelöst bzw. verlagert: Gesteht man sich ein, dass sich die Subjektivität des Forschers niemals völlig ausschalten lässt, erscheint es hilfreicher, die Auswirkung verschiedener Formen der Subjektivität (Verstehen, Perspektivität und Parteilichkeit) auf den Forschungsprozess zu untersuchen. Der Aufsatz widmet sich der Frage des Umgangs mit Perspektivität. Ausgehend von dem Argument, dass verschiedene theoretische Perspektiven auf dasselbe Phänomen einerseits nützlich sind, andererseits aber die Gefahr besteht, dass dadurch einer Disziplin die gemeinsame Kommunikationsbasis verlorengeht und Forschungsergebnisse nicht mehr miteinander vergleichbar sind, wird ein Bezugsrahmen vorgeschlagen, in dem Forscher ihre Forschungsfrage anhand von vier Dimensionen verorten können: 1. Handlungsbereich, 2. Handlungsebene, 3. Raum und 4. Zeit mit den Subdimensionen 4a. Zeitschicht und 4b. Verlaufsform. Hierdurch kann die Forschungsfrage präzisiert, und es können die für eine Theorie und Fragestellungen geeigneten Datenerhebungs- und -auswertungsverfahren gewählt werden.' (Autorenreferat)
    • Tales of Research Misconduct: A Lacanian Diagnostics of Integrity Challenges in Science Novels

      Hub Zwart (Springer, 2017)
      This monograph contributes to the scientific misconduct debate from an oblique perspective, by analysing seven novels devoted to this issue, namely: Arrowsmith by Sinclair Lewis (1925), The affair by C.P. Snow (1960), Cantor’s Dilemma by Carl Djerassi (1989), Perlmann’s Silence by Pascal Mercier (1995), Intuition by Allegra Goodman (2006), Solar by Ian McEwan (2010) and Derailment by Diederik Stapel (2012). Scientific misconduct, i.e. fabrication, falsification, plagiarism, but also other questionable research practices, have become a focus of concern for academic communities worldwide, but also for managers, funders and publishers of research. The aforementioned novels offer intriguing windows into integrity challenges emerging in contemporary research practices. They are analysed from a continental philosophical perspective, providing a stage where various voices, positions and modes of discourse are mutually exposed to one another, so that they critically address and question one another. They force us to start from the admission that we do not really know what misconduct is. Subsequently, by providing case histories of misconduct, they address integrity challenges not only in terms of individual deviance but also in terms of systemic crisis, due to current transformations in the ways in which knowledge is produced. Rather than functioning as moral vignettes, the author argues that misconduct novels challenge us to reconsider some of the basic conceptual building blocks of integrity discourse.
    • Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research

      Denzin, N; Morse, J; Pelias, R; Richardson, L; Lincoln, Y; Bochner, A; Ellis, Carolyn S (SelectedWorks, 2007-01-01)
      Ethics has been a perennial concern of qualitative researchers. The subject has been confounded with the emergence of human subjects regulations, the increased concern with indigenous communities, the globalization of research practices, and the breakdown of barriers between researcher and subject. The original contributions to this volume highlight the key topics that face contemporary qualitative researchers and those that will likely emerge in the near future. Written by many of the leading figures in the field—Lincoln, Denzin, Schwandt, Richardson, Ellis, Bochner, Morse, among others—this book will help shape the ethical response of the field to the challenges presented by the contemporary research environment.
    • Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research

      Ellis, Carolyn S; Bochner, Arthur; Denzin, Norman; Lincoln, Yvonna; Morse, Janice; Pelias, Ronald; Richardson, Laurel (SelectedWorks, 2008-01-01)
      This script comes from an edited transcript of a session titled “Talking and Thinking About Qualitative Research,” which was part of the 2006 International Congress of Qualitative Inquiry, held at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign on May 4-6, 2006. This special session featured scholars informally responding to questions about their personal history with qualitative methods, epiphanies that attracted them to qualitative work or changed their perspectives within the qualitative tradition, ethical crises, exemplary qualitative studies, the current state of qualitative methods, and challenges and goals for the next decade. Panelists included Arthur Bochner (communication), Norman Denzin (sociology/communication/critical studies), Yvonna Lincoln (education), Janice Morse (nursing/anthropology), Ronald Pelias (performance studies/ communication), and Laurel Richardson (sociology/gender studies). Carolyn Ellis (communication/sociology) served as organizer and moderator.
    • Target Populations for First-in-Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research in Spinal Cord Injury

      Bretzner, Frédéric; Gilbert, Frédéric; Baylis, Françoise, 1961-; Brownstone, Robert M (2016-01-09)
      Geron recently announced that it had begun enrolling patients in the world's first-in-human clinical trial involving cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). This trial raises important questions regarding the future of hESC-based therapies, especially in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. We address some safety and efficacy concerns with this research, as well as the ethics of fair subject selection. We consider other populations that might be better for this research: chronic complete SCI patients for a safety trial, subacute incomplete SCI patients for an efficacy trial, and perhaps primary progressive multiple sclerosis (MS) patients for a combined safety and efficacy trial.
    • Targeted knockout of BRG1 potentiates lung cancer development.

      Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology ; University of Michigan [Ann Arbor] ; University of Michigan System-University of Michigan System; Institut de génétique et biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC) ; Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Glaros, Selina; Cirrincione, Georgina,; Palanca, Ariel; Metzger, Daniel; Reisman, David (HAL CCSDAmerican Association for Cancer Research, 2008-05-15)
      International audience
    • Targeting bile-acid signalling for metabolic diseases.

      Institut de génétique et biologie moléculaire et cellulaire (IGBMC) ; Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technology ; Università degli Studi di Perugia (UNIPG); Intercept Pharmaceuticals ; Intercept Pharmaceuticals; Institut Clinique de la Souris (ICS) ; Université Louis Pasteur - Strasbourg I-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ; Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule - Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich [Zürich] (ETH Zürich); Thomas, Charles; Pellicciari, Roberto; Pruzanski, Mark; Auwerx, Johan; Schoonjans, Kristina (HAL CCSD, 2008-08)
      International audience
    • Task Demands, Task Interest, and Task Performance: Implications for Human Subjects Research and Practicing What We Preach

      Eveleth, Daniel M.; Pillutla, Arun (2016-01-09)
      Through the continuous investigation of humans in organizations, we have learned much about motivation, attitudes, and performance. For example, Yukl and others have helped increase our understanding of influence tactics and the effect they have on the performance of subordinates, supervisors, and peers. Some tactics (and combinations of tactics) lead to resistance, some lead to compliance, and some lead to commitment. In this study, we raise the question of whether or not we incorporate our knowledge of these research findings into the design, implementation, and interpretation of our own research studies that require the participation of human subjects. In a survey of 134 subjects from a previous social science study, we found that performance varied across the sample, consistent with the concepts of resistance, compliance, and commitment. In addition, the variance in performance could be explained, in part, by task interest and perceived task demands. Implications are discussed.
    • Task Force 1: The ACCF and AHA Codes of Conduct in Human Subjects Research

      Alpert, Joseph S.; Shine, Kenneth I.; Adams, Robert J.; Antman, Elliott M.; Kavey, Rae Ellen W.; Friedman, Lawrence; Frye, Robert L.; Harrington, Robert A.; Korn, David; Merz, Jon F.; et al. (2016-01-08)