• VA to Review Medical Research Safeguards

      Flaherty, Mary Pat (2016-01-09)
    • Validation of the Self-report altruism scale test in Colombian University Students

      Aguilar Pardo, David; Martínez Cotrina, Jorge (2016)
      Objective: to establish whether the Canadian selfreport altruism scale Questionnaire is a reliable estimate for altruistic behavior in young Colombian university students.Methodology: the self-report altruism scale test was adapted and applied. 327 university students between 18 and 25 years from five independent cohorts participated in this study. Participants should note, in 20 items, the frequency (never, once, more than once, often or very often) with which they performed altruistic behavior. The method of this study followed the protocol of the World Health Organization for these cases. There was also a correlation analysis between the score of the questionnaire and the evaluation that some close friends of each participant made in relation to the altruistic tendency of the latter.Results: cronbach's alpha, bipartition analysis and comparison of these data with those reported in other countries show that the instrument is highly reliable. The selfreport altruism scale questionnaire is a useful tool to estimate the altruistic behavior of Colombian university students.Conclusions: the relevance of developing tools to assess prosocial behavior in the country is discussed and clarified. Expanding the age range and applying the questionnaire to non-university populations, will strengthen the development of the instrument.
    • Validiteten af spørgeskemaundersøgelser med lav svarprocent

      Kristensen, Solvejg; Jensen, Charlotte Maria; Winding, Trine Nøhr; Bilenberg, Niels (2009-02-02)
      <
    • Validiteten af spørgeskemaundersøgelser med lav svarprocent

      Kristensen, Solvejg; Jensen, Charlotte Maria; Winding, Trine Nøhr; Bilenberg, Niels (2009-02-02)
      INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to compare the characteristics of epidemiological survey non-respondents with the characteristics of respondents who participated by mail and phone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on data from questionnaires and registered data on socio-demographics. The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1-5 (CBCL/1-5) and "Experiences when answering a questionnaire" was mailed to 300 parents of children aged 18 months to five years. Parents who did not respond after a mail reminder were contacted by telephone. RESULTS: A total of 138 families replied to the mail contact, 99 replied after telephone contact, and we received no response from 63 families. No statistical differences in socio-demographic characteristics were found between the three groups. No statistical differences were found concerning the total problem behaviour score of the CBCL/1-5 between mail and phone responders. Parents who participated by phone thought more frequently than mail responders that questions on the CBCL/1-5 were ethically offensive, and that their own knowledge about child well-being and behaviour was unsatisfactory, p
    • Validiteten af spørgeskemaundersøgelser med lav svarprocent

      Kristensen, Solvejg; Jensen, Charlotte Maria; Winding, Trine Nøhr; Bilenberg, Niels (2009-02-02)
      INTRODUCTION: The purpose of the present study was to compare the characteristics of epidemiological survey non-respondents with the characteristics of respondents who participated by mail and phone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was based on data from questionnaires and registered data on socio-demographics. The Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 1-5 (CBCL/1-5) and "Experiences when answering a questionnaire" was mailed to 300 parents of children aged 18 months to five years. Parents who did not respond after a mail reminder were contacted by telephone. RESULTS: A total of 138 families replied to the mail contact, 99 replied after telephone contact, and we received no response from 63 families. No statistical differences in socio-demographic characteristics were found between the three groups. No statistical differences were found concerning the total problem behaviour score of the CBCL/1-5 between mail and phone responders. Parents who participated by phone thought more frequently than mail responders that questions on the CBCL/1-5 were ethically offensive, and that their own knowledge about child well-being and behaviour was unsatisfactory, p
    • Validity of the French version of the Autonomy Preference Index and its adaptation for patients with advanced cancer

      Université Paris Descartes - Paris 5 (UPD5); Unité fonctionnelle de médecine palliative ; AP-HP - Hôpital Cochin Broca Hôtel Dieu [Paris]-Université de Paris; Centre de recherche en épidémiologie et santé des populations (CESP) ; Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines (UVSQ)-Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 (UP11)-Assistance publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) (APHP)-Hôpital Paul Brousse-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); General Practice Department [Le Kremlin-Bicêtre] ; Université Paris-Sud - Paris 11 (UP11); Colombet, Isabelle; Rigal, Laurent; Urtizberea, Miren; Vinant, Pascale; Rouquette, Alexandra (HAL CCSDPublic Library of Science, 2020-01-14)
      International audience
    • Value Essence

      George Sibashvili (Academic Publishing House Researcher, 2014-05-01)
      Value is addressed notion and refers to someone, who values something. It is deigned for someone, for a party, for a man. The other understanding of value would be unscientific, false. The value, understood in such manner, exists in the form of man’s goals and ideals.
    • Values and Ethics -- Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Health Research

      National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMRC] (Australia), 2016-01-09
    • Values and Obligations in Qualitative Research

      Ramakrishna, Jayashree (2016-01-08)
    • Values in Conflict: Public Attitudes on Embryonic Stem Cell Research

      Hudson K, Scott J; Faden R (Genetics and Public Policy Center, 2006-11-27)
      Stem cells are unique among human cells in that they possess the uncanny ability to develop into virtually any other cell of the body, offering a hypothetical tool kit for repairing diseased hearts, mending broken spinal cords, or correcting genetic diseases, among other hoped-for benefits. Stem cells derived from very early embryos show the most promise in research to date, but the embryo is destroyed in the process of acquiring the cells themselves. This outcome is not acceptable to individuals and institutions that believe human life at all stages of development deserves protection and should not be destroyed. Much current debate focuses on whether other sources of stem cells - blood from the umbilical cord removed at birth, for example - might be as useful without the need to destroy embryos, but the scientific consensus so far is that embryos remain the best research choice. Typically, the embryos used are those remaining at the conclusion of fertility treatments that would otherwise be discarded or kept in frozen storage; a ban on the use of Federal funds to create new stem cells using these embryos currently is in effect, and various pieces of legislation pending in Congress would either extend this ban or relax it. A survey of 2,212 Americans conducted September 9-19, reveals a public opinion landscape that bears little resemblance to the polarized, deep moral divide expressed on the floor of the Congress and in the op-ed pages of American newspapers. The survey found wide support for embryonic stem cell (ESC) research that cut across political, religious and socio-economic lines, with two-thirds of respondents either approving or strongly approving of human embryonic stem cell research. Even Fundamentalist and Evangelical Christians - long considered to be the most hard-line opponents of embryonic stem cell studies -- split evenly on approval for embryonic stem cell research. Respondents were given a choice of four ESC research policy options: banning all embryonic stem cell research, retaining the current Bush administration policy, relaxing restrictions along the lines of some Congressional proposals that would allow federal funding of research using embryonic stem cell lines created using private funds, and unqualified Federal support for embryonic stem cell creation and research. Twenty-two percent of respondents expressed support for the current Bush administration policy; fewer still (16 percent), would ban embryonic stem cell research altogether. A majority favored relaxing embryonic stem cell restrictions, including 40 percent who would support federal funding for both the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines and further research using them. The survey also explored how potential future changes in the scientific landscape might affect public opinion. Respondents were asked to imagine two scenarios - the development of a technique to isolate ESCs without destroying embryos, or a major advance in treating disease based on embryonic stem cell technologies. About 25 percent of respondents who initially favored the current policy or a complete ban of ESC research indicated that if the treatment scenario were to materialize, they would support a public policy for ESC research that is more supportive than their initial policy position. Similarly, if the alternative scenario were to materialize, 16 percent of respondents who currently endorse a public policy towards ESC research that is more permissive than the current public policy would then support ESC research only if embryos were not destroyed. The survey looked beyond overall attitudes toward ESC research to explore the competing values that underlie them. Survey respondents were asked a series of questions designed to ascertain the value placed on progress in ESC research and protecting early human embryos. The survey revealed a subtle topography of the public's attitudes with only a small fraction (6 percent at each pole) of the public occupying the extreme positions that so frequently characterize the public and policy debate. Fully half expressed agreement both with statements that placed high priority on protecting human embryos and with statements that placed high priority on searching for medical cures through ESC research. When asked in a single item which was more important, 60 percent selected ESC research and 37 percent selected not destroying embryos. While the moral status of human embryos has been the centerpiece of the political debate about ESC research, often articulated as an all-or-nothing proposition that is fully predictive of all of an individual's other views on embryonic stem cell research, the public's views about the moral status of embryos and the relationship of those views to ESC research policy preferences has not been fully explored. The survey showed that nearly the same number of Americans believe that an embryo in a Petri dish has no or low moral status (30 percent) or maximum moral status (28 percent). The remainder (42 percent) accord embryos some intermediate moral status. A third of those who believe an embryo in a Petri dish has maximum moral status nonetheless approve of ESC research. Similarly, a third support ESC research policies more permissive than the current policy and which involve funding for research using new ESCs. In a parallel fashion, 17 percent of those who accord an embryo in a Petri dish no or low moral status nevertheless disapprove of ESC research and support the current ESC policy or an all-out ban (22 percent). Thus, even for a sizeable number of respondents who fall at the polar ends of the moral status continuum, the commonly held expectation that they will support the corresponding policy extreme does not hold true.
    • Values in Conflict: Public Attitudes on Embryonic Stem Cell Research

      Hudson K, Scott J; Faden R (Genetics and Public Policy Center, 2006-11-27)
      Stem cells are unique among human cells in that they possess the uncanny ability to develop into virtually any other cell of the body, offering a hypothetical tool kit for repairing diseased hearts, mending broken spinal cords, or correcting genetic diseases, among other hoped-for benefits. Stem cells derived from very early embryos show the most promise in research to date, but the embryo is destroyed in the process of acquiring the cells themselves. This outcome is not acceptable to individuals and institutions that believe human life at all stages of development deserves protection and should not be destroyed. Much current debate focuses on whether other sources of stem cells - blood from the umbilical cord removed at birth, for example - might be as useful without the need to destroy embryos, but the scientific consensus so far is that embryos remain the best research choice. Typically, the embryos used are those remaining at the conclusion of fertility treatments that would otherwise be discarded or kept in frozen storage; a ban on the use of Federal funds to create new stem cells using these embryos currently is in effect, and various pieces of legislation pending in Congress would either extend this ban or relax it. A survey of 2,212 Americans conducted September 9-19, reveals a public opinion landscape that bears little resemblance to the polarized, deep moral divide expressed on the floor of the Congress and in the op-ed pages of American newspapers. The survey found wide support for embryonic stem cell (ESC) research that cut across political, religious and socio-economic lines, with two-thirds of respondents either approving or strongly approving of human embryonic stem cell research. Even Fundamentalist and Evangelical Christians - long considered to be the most hard-line opponents of embryonic stem cell studies -- split evenly on approval for embryonic stem cell research. Respondents were given a choice of four ESC research policy options: banning all embryonic stem cell research, retaining the current Bush administration policy, relaxing restrictions along the lines of some Congressional proposals that would allow federal funding of research using embryonic stem cell lines created using private funds, and unqualified Federal support for embryonic stem cell creation and research. Twenty-two percent of respondents expressed support for the current Bush administration policy; fewer still (16 percent), would ban embryonic stem cell research altogether. A majority favored relaxing embryonic stem cell restrictions, including 40 percent who would support federal funding for both the creation of new embryonic stem cell lines and further research using them. The survey also explored how potential future changes in the scientific landscape might affect public opinion. Respondents were asked to imagine two scenarios - the development of a technique to isolate ESCs without destroying embryos, or a major advance in treating disease based on embryonic stem cell technologies. About 25 percent of respondents who initially favored the current policy or a complete ban of ESC research indicated that if the treatment scenario were to materialize, they would support a public policy for ESC research that is more supportive than their initial policy position. Similarly, if the alternative scenario were to materialize, 16 percent of respondents who currently endorse a public policy towards ESC research that is more permissive than the current public policy would then support ESC research only if embryos were not destroyed. The survey looked beyond overall attitudes toward ESC research to explore the competing values that underlie them. Survey respondents were asked a series of questions designed to ascertain the value placed on progress in ESC research and protecting early human embryos. The survey revealed a subtle topography of the public's attitudes with only a small fraction (6 percent at each pole) of the public occupying the extreme positions that so frequently characterize the public and policy debate. Fully half expressed agreement both with statements that placed high priority on protecting human embryos and with statements that placed high priority on searching for medical cures through ESC research. When asked in a single item which was more important, 60 percent selected ESC research and 37 percent selected not destroying embryos. While the moral status of human embryos has been the centerpiece of the political debate about ESC research, often articulated as an all-or-nothing proposition that is fully predictive of all of an individual's other views on embryonic stem cell research, the public's views about the moral status of embryos and the relationship of those views to ESC research policy preferences has not been fully explored. The survey showed that nearly the same number of Americans believe that an embryo in a Petri dish has no or low moral status (30 percent) or maximum moral status (28 percent). The remainder (42 percent) accord embryos some intermediate moral status. A third of those who believe an embryo in a Petri dish has maximum moral status nonetheless approve of ESC research. Similarly, a third support ESC research policies more permissive than the current policy and which involve funding for research using new ESCs. In a parallel fashion, 17 percent of those who accord an embryo in a Petri dish no or low moral status nevertheless disapprove of ESC research and support the current ESC policy or an all-out ban (22 percent). Thus, even for a sizeable number of respondents who fall at the polar ends of the moral status continuum, the commonly held expectation that they will support the corresponding policy extreme does not hold true.
    • Valuing architecture: taste, aesthetics and the cultural mediation of architecture through television

      Stead, Naomi; Richards, Morgan (Manchester University Press, 2014-11-01)
      In this paper we examine how architecture has been mediated and framed by two television documentary series: Civilisation: A Personal View by Kenneth Clark (1969) and Grand Designs (1999–present). Both are examples of ‘authored documentary’, and both also attempt the education of public taste: in Civilisation through the structured admiration of great civic buildings framed as monumental art, and in Grand Designs through desirable domestic buildings framed as instruments for the art of living. In the paper we examine how the series can be both linked and distinguished through practices of valuation.
    • Variation du risque de cancer du sein en fonction de la nature de la mutation du gène ATM. Étude familiale rétrospective

      Méthodologie statistique et épidémiologie génétique des maladies multifactorielles ; Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); Service de biostatistique (IC10213) ; Institut Curie [Paris]-Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM); Service de Génétique Oncologique ; Institut Curie [Paris]; Institut Gustave Roussy (IGR); Département de génétique Humaine ; CHU Sart Tilman; DNA Repair Group (CIRC) ; Centre international de recherche sur le cancer; Cavaciuti, Eve; Laugé, Anthony; Ossian, Katia; Janin, Nicolas; et al. (HAL CCSDElsevier Masson, 2004-09)
      Objectifs : L’ataxie-télangiectasie (AT) est une maladie récessive de l’enfant caractérisée par une ataxie cérébelleuse dégénérative, des télangiectasies cutanées ou muqueuses, un déficit immunitaire et un risque augmenté de cancer. Des études sur les familles AT ont montré que les femmes hétérozygotes AT (HetAT) ont un risque de cancer du sein (CS) multiplié par ~ 3 par rapport à la population générale. Bien que l’AT soit rare, jusqu’à 1 % de la population serait HetAT. Ce trait génétique pourrait donc être impliqué dans un pourcentage non négligeable de CS, entre 1 % et 3 %. Nous proposons d’estimer le risque de CS en fonction de la nature de la mutation du gène ATM et de la taille présumée des protéines ATM qui seraient produites à partir des allèles portant les mutations tronquantes.Méthodes : Entre 1994 et 1997, 34 familles (1 423 apparentés dont 711 femmes) ont été recensées à partir d’enfants AT. Les données démographiques, la survenue de cancer et les prélèvements sanguins ont été recueillis auprès des apparentés du 1er, 2e et 3e degré de l’enfant AT. Une mutation ATM a été identifiée dans 84 % des branches parentales explorées. Le nombre observé de cancers a été comparé au nombre attendu calculé à partir des données d’incidence estimées France entière.Résultats : Le risque de CS parmi les HetAT était multiplié par 3,96 par rapport à la population générale. Nous n’avons pas mis en évidence de différence de risque en fonction de la nature de la mutation (c’est-à-dire tronquantes vs « faux-sens »). L’étude de la variation du risque de CS en fonction de la longueur présumée de la protéine ATM tronquée met en évidence une association entre le risque de CS et la localisation de la mutation dans certains domaines du gène ATM.Conclusion : Bien que les conséquences biologiques des mutations tronquantes à l’état hétérozygote sur le processus de la réparation de l’ADN soit encore mal connue, ces résultats méritent d’être confirmés. En effet, si cette association est confirmée, la stratégie de dépistage du CS dans les familles AT pourrait être modifiée en fonction de la localisation de la mutation.
    • Variations in informed consent practices for genetic research

      Hull, S.C.; Gooding, H.; Warshauer-Baker, Esther; Metosky, S.; Hurley, E.; Gutter, E.; Wilfond, Benjamin (2011-07-12)
      abstract
    • Variations in informed consent practices for genetic research

      Hull, S.C.; Gooding, H.; Warshauer-Baker, Esther; Metosky, S.; Hurley, E.; Gutter, E.; Wilfond, Benjamin (2011-07-12)
      abstract
    • Varying ethics rules in clinical research and routine patient care - research ethics committee chairpersons' views in Finland

      University of Helsinki, Department of Public Health (-2009); University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute; University of Helsinki, Hjelt Institute; Hemminki, Elina; Virtanen, Jorma I.; Veerus, Piret (BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2014-03-25)
    • Vattimo, Saramago, Manguel. Articolazioni del ricordo letterario

      Pino Menzio (University of Bologna, 2013-06-01)
      Literature is especially consistent with itself when its capacity to preserve people, things and events in the reader’s memory (objective pietas) promotes a sentiment of compassion and care for the things which are saved because of their caducity (subjective pietas). This latter becomes thus the sentiment which mainly connotes the literary knowledge.
    • Vem har rätt till äktenskap? Frågan som splittrar Europa

      Jehrlander, Frida (Uppsala universitet, Teologiska institutionen, 2020)
      Should same sex couples have a right to marriage? This question has been debated frequently during the last two decades. The legislation across Europe shows a divide between countries that have legalised same-sex marriage and countries that have introduced constitutional bans on same-sex marriage. Using a theory that emphasises the moral dimension of human rights, I examine the right to marriage in the European Convention of Human Rights from an ethical perspective. The purpose of this thesis is threefold. The first aim is to investigate how the right to marriage is regulated in The European Convention on Human Rights and how its interpreted by The European Court of Human Rights. The second aim is to identify and assess central arguments in the debate about same sex marriage from a human rights perspective. The third and final aim is to perform a critical examination of the right to marriage in the European Convention of Human rights from an ethical perspective.   This study shows that The European Court of Human Rights is cautious in its interpretation of the right to marriage and has chosen to await a European consensus before including same-sex couples in the right to marriage. By looking closer at the evolutionary interpretation of the convention, as discussed by George Letsas &amp;amp; Kanstantsin Dzehtsiarou, I conclude that this interpretation should be based on certain moral principles. Through the examination of central arguments in the same-sex marriage debate I draw the conclusion that same sex couples have a moral right to marriage. Thus, this thesis suggests that there is a contradiction between the moral dimension of human rights and The European Court of Human Rights interpretation of the right to marriage for same-sex couples. I therefore argue that there should be an ethical demand to include same sex-couples in the right to marriage.
    • Verbal allocutivity in a crosslinguistic perspective

      Centre de Recherches Linguistiques sur l'Asie Orientale (CRLAO); École des hautes études en sciences sociales (EHESS)-Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales (Inalco)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Antonov, Anton (HAL CCSDDe Gruyter, 2015-05)
      International audience