• Resolution 196/96 and the Brazilian ethical review system on research involving human beings

      Silva Barbosa, Adriana (Conselho Federal de Medicina, 2011)
      "The objective of this paper is to analyze Resolution 196/96 from the historical aspects to its importance, repercussions and criticism. This study was elaborated through bibliographic survey of articles made available by the Virtual Health Library, by the Scientific Electronic Library (SciELO) and by Capes’ Journals Website. It was possible to perceive, in the undertaken analysis, that there are still many challenges to be overcome by the CEP/Conep system related to Resolution 196/96 enforcement and CEPs operation. It was also noticed that this resolution and the CEPs develop a fundamental role in the social control by assuring respect and protection to researches subjects."
    • Resource Depletion Perspective on the Link Between Abusive Supervision and Safety Behaviors

      Yuan, Xiao; Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan (SPRINGER, 2020-02-01)
      Leader behavior significantly influences employees' safety performance. This study aimed to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the safety behaviors of subordinates. By drawing on the strength model of self-control, we predicted that abusive supervision would negatively affect safety behaviors through emotional exhaustion, and trait self-control and attentional bias toward safety would moderate the relationship between abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, and safety behaviors. Our hypothesized model was supported by results from a sample of 159 workers at a chemical product manufacturing enterprise in China. Emotional exhaustion mediated the link between abusive supervision and safety behaviors. Moreover, trait self-control moderated the relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion, and attentional bias toward safety moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and safety compliance. This study elucidates the effects of abusive supervision on safety behaviors through the resource depletion process. Likewise, the importance of trait self-control and attentional bias toward safety in mitigating the potentially harmful effects of abusive supervision in workplace safety is highlighted. Minimizing abusive supervision, providing self-control training, and implementing safety-specific implicit cognition intervention can effectively improve employees' safety behaviors.
    • Resource Depletion Perspective on the Link Between Abusive Supervision and Safety Behaviors

      Yuan, Xiao; Xu, Yaoshan; Li, Yongjuan (SPRINGER, 2020-02-01)
      Leader behavior significantly influences employees' safety performance. This study aimed to examine the effect of abusive supervision on the safety behaviors of subordinates. By drawing on the strength model of self-control, we predicted that abusive supervision would negatively affect safety behaviors through emotional exhaustion, and trait self-control and attentional bias toward safety would moderate the relationship between abusive supervision, emotional exhaustion, and safety behaviors. Our hypothesized model was supported by results from a sample of 159 workers at a chemical product manufacturing enterprise in China. Emotional exhaustion mediated the link between abusive supervision and safety behaviors. Moreover, trait self-control moderated the relationship between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion, and attentional bias toward safety moderated the relationship between emotional exhaustion and safety compliance. This study elucidates the effects of abusive supervision on safety behaviors through the resource depletion process. Likewise, the importance of trait self-control and attentional bias toward safety in mitigating the potentially harmful effects of abusive supervision in workplace safety is highlighted. Minimizing abusive supervision, providing self-control training, and implementing safety-specific implicit cognition intervention can effectively improve employees' safety behaviors.
    • Resources Employed by Health Researchers to Ensure Ethical Research Practice

      Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn; Rosenthal, Doreen; Bolitho, Annie (2016-01-09)
      There is little empirical evidence about what resources health researchers use in order to make decisions about the ethical conduct of human research. Undertaking an empirical examination of how researchers understand research ethics and how they address ethical issues in research practice can lead to a richer understanding of how researchers approach research ethics. Our findings are based on interviews with 54 Australian health researchers. We conclude that, despite the considerable time devoted to ethics review, ethics committees and research guidelines were not seen as valuable resources for researchers undertaking research in the field. Although researchers did not perceive ethics committees as a resource when faced with ethical issues in the field, they nevertheless perceived the process of ethics review as beneficial to them; this allowed them to clarify their research, make decisions about the ethical conduct of the research, as well as offering them a sense of protection when undertaking research. In the actual undertaking of research practice, it was their past professional experience and personal values that researchers considered most useful resources when encountering ethical problems.
    • Resources in Research Ethics

      Hamric, Ann B. (2016-01-09)
    • Respect the Author: a Research Ethical Principle for Readers

      Ahlin Marceta, Jesper (KTH, Filosofi, 2019)
      Much of contemporary research ethics was developed in the latter half of the twentieth century as a response to the unethical treatment of human beings in biomedical research. Research ethical considerations have subsequently been extended to cover topics in the sciences and technology such as data handling, precautionary measures, engineering codes of conduct, and more. However, moral issues in the humanities have gained less attention from research ethicists. This article proposes an ethical principle for reading for research purposes: Respect the author.
    • Respondent Burden in Clinical Research: When Are We Asking Too Much of Subjects?

      Ulrich, Connie M.; Wallen, Gwenyth R.; Feister, Autumn; Grady, Christine (2016-01-08)
    • Responding to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct: The Procedure at the French National Medical and Health Research Institute

      Breittmayer, Jean-Philippe; Bungener, Martine; De The, Hugues; Eschwege, Evelyne; Fougereau, Michel; Guedj, Gilles; Kordon, Claude; Philippe, Olivier; Postel-Vinay, Marie-Catherine; Schaffar-Esterle, Laurence (2015-05-05)
    • Responding to Allegations of Scientific Misconduct: The Procedure at the French National Medical and Health Research Institute

      Breittmayer, Jean-Philippe; Bungener, Martine; De The, Hugues; Eschwege, Evelyne; Fougereau, Michel; Guedj, Gilles; Kordon, Claude; Philippe, Olivier; Postel-Vinay, Marie-Catherine; Schaffar-Esterle, Laurence (2016-01-08)
    • Responsabilidad ética y social de los profesionales en el contexto de la investigación universitaria en salud [Ethical and social responsibility of professionals in the context of university research in health]

      Brussino, Silvia L.; Prósperi, Roxana M. (Asociación Argentina de Investigaciones Éticas, 2013)
      "Este artículo es parte de un Proyecto de investigación y desarrollo financiado por la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) - Argentina, denominado “Ética profesional y conocimiento en ciencias de la salud”. El objetivo central del proyecto es conocer los criterios que utilizan los profesionales para calificar la investigación científica y vincularla con la toma de decisiones en la práctica. En este trabajo nos centramos en uno de los ejes del Proyecto referido a la responsabilidad ética y social de los expertos, confrontando la opinión de los investigadores acerca de sus responsabilidades con los principales puntos de discusión teórica actual sobre la responsabilidad social de los científicos en relación a la salud y la responsabilidad social universitaria (RSU). Del análisis de lo expresado por los entrevistados surge que la comprensión de sus responsabilidades es eminentemente individual y que el contenido ético de las mismas es de sentido común, incluidas las normativas para la investigación en ciencias de la salud y de la vida. Si bien se atribuye una función social a la investigación científica, no se vislumbra la necesidad de discutir el significado y alcance de la misma. Vestigios de un ethos científico exigente e idealizado conviven sin grandes tensiones con los requerimientos de burocratización y mercantilización de la investigación conforme a los criterios internacionales de evaluación" ["This article is part of a research and development project funded by the Universidad Nacional del Litoral (UNL) – Argentina, called “Professional Ethics and Knowledge in Health Sciences”. The main purpose of the project is to know the criteria used by professionals to evaluate the scientific research and link it to the decision-making in the practice. In this work, we focus on one of the project central points regarding the experts’ ethical and social responsibility, comparing researchers’ opinion about their responsibilities with the main points of current theoretical discussion about scientists’ social responsibility in relation to health and university social responsibility (RSU, by its acronym in Spanish). The analysis expressed by interviewees shows that the understanding of their responsibilities is essentially individual and the ethical content of them is of common sense, including the regulations for research in health and life science. Although a social role is assigned to scientific research, the need to discuss its meaning and scope is not foreseen. The remains of a demanding and idealized scientific ethos coexist without great tension with the bureaucratization and commercialization requirements of research in compliance with international evaluation criteria"]
    • Responsabilité individuelle et collective en santé

      Laboratoire d'Histoire des Sciences et de Philosophie - Archives Henri Poincaré (LHSP) ; Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Archives Henri-Poincaré - Philosophie et Recherches sur les Sciences et les Technologies (AHP-PReST) ; Université de Strasbourg (UNISTRA)-Université de Lorraine (UL)-Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Weber, Jean-Christophe (HAL CCSD, 2020-02-06)
      National audience
    • Responsabilité sociale des entreprises et lobbying : Quelle éthique pour quels enjeux dans les cabinets de conseil en lobbying?

      Centre d'Études et de Recherche en Gestion d'Aix-Marseille (CERGAM) ; Aix Marseille Université (AMU)-Université de Toulon (UTLN); LIRSA. Centre de recherche en comptabilité (LIRSA-CRC) ; Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action (LIRSA) ; Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] (CNAM)-Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] (CNAM); Major, R.W.; Rival, Madina (HAL CCSD, 2012-06-04)
      In France, lobbying consulting is at the same time a recent and not well received activity, conversely to the United States. The influence of public decision making is certainly a particularly sensitive occupation, at both managerial and societal levels. This is why ethics as applied to business can play a central role in its establishment. This paper examines the practices and issues of ethics in lobbying consulting. The chosen field in this exploratory study is France. The case of a lobbying consultancy firm is more specifically developed. A three month participant observation research is complemented by secondary data on the profession in France and in the United States, as well as on French, European, American and Quebec institutions. The results of this research are developed along two lines: 1. The practice of lobbying ethics differs according to age and degree of institutionalization of the profession in the country. In France ethics is informal and based primarily on exemplary, with a particularly low regulatory potential. 2. The stakes of ethics are both internal to the lobbying consulting profession, in its structuring from an emerging to an established profession, as well as external in the clarifying of its relationship with its stakeholders including customers, government and the civil society.