”Satoyama-Satoumi” regional management : a universal cognition and practice for green economy, ecosystem health and sustainable society in indigenous communities of the world
AbstractSatoyama concept has been advocated for an ideal model for traditional landscape, where nature and human are in harmony and sustainable. In 2010, the International Partnership for Satoyama Initiative (IPSI) was launched to revitalize the concept of Satoyama in Japan and promote it internationally but no mechanism exists in which it can be thoroughly evaluated. Because of a combination of factors, the existence of indigenous peoples can no longer be based on a hunter-gatherer tradition and requires agriculture to guarantee their food supply and livelihood. The Satoyamas of Noto were recognized as a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) thus highlighting the inherent connection between Satoyama and agriculture but there exists a research gap on the social aspects of Satoyama with a bias towards the ecological sphere and no research has been done to ascertain the possibility of a Satoyama type approach for the introduction of new and improved agricultural techniques into indigenous communities. This thesis aims to fill these gaps and explore the possibility of arriving at a Satoyama developmental model for promoting sustainable agriculture in indigenous communities. Data were collected through individual, household and group interviews, questionnaire surveys, field visits, and available documents; and were processed through standard qualitative data analysis and grounded theory approach. Preliminary research was conducted in the Noto Peninsula, Japan with a view of determining the social origins and evolutions of Satoyama. This was followed by a comparative analysis between Satoyama and the past Ainu way of life. Results indicate that Satoyama communities originated and evolved due to being remotely located, with members experiencing hardships and subject to natural disasters which resulted in self sufficiency, food security, and resilience respectively. These results bear striking similarities to the existing realities of indigenous peoples thus demonstrating its usefulness to achieve sustainable development in their communities and the other world’s indigenous communities as well. Further, the Satoyama Agriculture Development Tool (SADT) was created based on the five perspectives identified by the IPSI where harmonized questions were used and answers given points based on a Likert’s scaling allowing communities to be classified as Satoyama Like (SL), In Transition (IT), or Non Compliant (NC). With the aim of testing the utility of the SADT internationally, independent researchers affiliated to Hokkaido University and/or the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) in collaboration with stakeholders utilized it in Guyana, Indonesia, Malaysia and Gabon; while in Thailand, it was used by both government officers and villagers. Findings by the researchers show that the results obtained through the SADT does not change significantly based on the stakeholders involved; while the results in Thailand showed no significant differences between the officers and villagers. These results indicate that the SADT can act as an orientation for professionals to determine the shortcomings present; the correct approach needed to assist the community; and serve as a guide for determining the priority measures to achieve sustainable development. However, the success is dependent on the availability of credible data and the involvement of unbiased users. Because these factors can only be curbed in the actual use of the SADT rather than from analyzing the results, it is recommended that it be used by multidisciplinary teams rather than individuals. Results also proves that it is suitably designed for future use by members of the indigenous communities but would require adjustments to make the questions more comprehendible by the ordinary villager and further analysis would need to be done of results obtained when the SADT is utilized by villagers without the influence of others to determine its success in this regard.