The Social Ecology of Resilience A Handbook of Theory and Practice /
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Abstractedited by Michael Ungar.
I. Introduction to the Theory -- Social Ecologies and their Contribution to Resilience -- Resilience: Causal Pathways and Social Ecology -- Theory and Measurement of Resilience: Views from Development -- Resilience and Children's Work in Brazil: Lesson from Physics for Psychology -- II. Five Interviews -- An Interview with Macalane Malindi: The Impact of Education and Changing Social Policy on Resilience During Apartheid and Post-Apartheid in South Africa -- An Interview with Bill Strickland: How Community-based Adult Educational Facilities can Lift People out of Poverty in Urban America -- An Interview with Jude Simpson: Growing Beyond a Life of Abuse and Gang Involvement in New Zealand -- An Interview with Vicki Durrant: Creating a Community Program for High-Risk Aboriginal Youth in Canada's North -- An Interview with Arn Chorn-Pond: Helping Children in Cambodia Through the Revival of Traditional Music and Art -- III. The Individual (in context) -- From Neurons to Social Context: Restoring Resilience as a Capacity for Good Survival -- Situating Resilience in Developmental Context -- Temporal and Contextual Dimensions to Individual Positive Development: A Developmental-Contextual Systems Model of Resilience -- Girls' Violence: Criminality or Resilience?- IV. The Family -- Facilitating Family Resilience: Relational Resources for Positive Youth Development in Conditions of Adversity -- Contexts of Vulnerability and Resilience: Childhood Maltreatment, Cognitive Functioning and Close Relationships -- Averting Child Maltreatment: Individual, Economic, Social and Community Resources that Promote Resilient Parenting -- Caring Relationships: How to Promote Resilience in Challenging Times -- Young People, Their Families and Social Supports: Understanding Resilience with Complexity Theory -- V. The School.-Local Resources and Distal Decisions: The Political Ecology of Resilience -- Caring Teachers: Teacher-youth Transactions to Promote Resilience -- Children with Disabilities and Supportive School Ecologies -- Resilience in Schools and Curriculum Design -- VI. The Community -- How Prior Social Ecologies Shape Family Resilience Amongst Refugees in U.S.Resettlement -- Young People, Sexual Orientation, and Resilience -- Community Resilience: Fostering Recovery, Sustainability, and Growth -- The Social Ecology of Resilience in War-Affected Youth: A Longitudinal Study from Sierra Leone -- Traveling Through Social Support and Youth Civic Action on a Journey Towards Resilience -- VII. Culture.-Understanding Culture and Resilience: The Production of Hope -- Case Study: Promoting Community Resilience with Local Values - Greenland's Paamiut Asasara -- Toward an Ecology of Stories: Indigenous Perspectives on Resilience -- Macro, Meso and Micro Perspectives of Resilience During and After Exposure to War -- Predictors of resilient psychosocial functioning in Western Australian Aboriginal Young People Exposed to High Family-level Risk.
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Social Protection in Low Income Countries and Fragile Situations : Challenges and Future DirectionsOvadiya, Mirey; Zampaglione, Giuseppe; Das, Maitreyi; Andrews, Colin; Elder, John (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2013-05-28)Demand for social protection is growing in low income countries and fragile situations. In recent years, the success of social protection (SP) interventions in middle income countries (MICs) like Brazil and Mexico, along with the series of food, fuel, and financial crises, has prompted policymakers in low income countries (LICs) and fragile situations (FSs) to examine the possibility of introducing such programs in their own countries. Flagship programs in countries as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Pakistan, and Rwanda have shown the adaptability of social protection interventions to the LIC context. Yet, despite growing levels of support for these initiatives, many challenges remain. In LICs and FSs, governments are confronted with a nexus of mutually reinforcing deficits that increase the need for SP programs and simultaneously reduce their ability to successfully respond. Governments face hard choices about the type, affordability, and sustainability of SP interventions. The paper reviews how these factors affect SP programs in these countries and identifies ways to address the deficits. It supports the establishment of resilient SP systems to address specific needs and vulnerabilities and to respond flexibly to both slow and sudden onset crises. To achieve this, both innovation and pragmatism are required in three strategic areas: (i) building the basic blocks of SP systems (e.g., targeting, payments, and monitoring and evaluation); (ii) ensuring financial sustainability; and (iii) promoting good governance and transparency. These issues suggest the possibility of a different trajectory in the development of social protection in LICs than in MICs. The implications for World Bank support include the need to focus on increasing knowledge and operational effectiveness of SP programs, fostering institutional links between multiple SP programs, and using community capacity and technological innovations to overcome bottlenecks in operations.
Managing Risk, Promoting GrowthWorld Bank (World Bank, Washington, DC, 2016-02-08)A growing body of evidence demonstrates
that individuals and households experience a range of
positive outcomes from social protection. Social protection
increases productivity and growth. Countries can realize
significant benefits by creating an integrated social
protection system. Social protection is affordable in
low-income countries despite tight budgets. While overall
spending on social protection in Africa remains low by
international standards, experience suggests that social
protection programs can achieve national coverage at the
cost of only 1 to 2 percent of gross domestic product (GDP).
While this is only a portion of the financing required to
operate a social protection system, it draws attention to
what countries can achieve in the short-term. Indeed, one
way in which existing social protection spending can be made
significantly more efficient would be by reallocating
existing financing for inefficient subsidies and ad hoc
emergency food aid to predictable safety nets. At the same
time, pursuing reforms to social security systems will
ensure their fiscal sustainability, while expanding
coverage. Notably, the costs of not protecting poor families
are very high, are borne disproportionately by women and
children, and undermine the productivity of future
generations. The Strategy will be implemented by leveraging
partnerships, knowledge, and the World Bank's financing
instruments. The World Bank will continue to invest in
analytical work to fill knowledge gaps and promote an
evidence-based dialogue for social protection systems in
Africa and further innovation. It will work with governments
to build country-owned national social protection systems
with the aim of reducing fragmentation in the sector. The
Bank also will pay particular attention to institutional
development and capacity building by using its lending to
increase the coverage of successful social protection
interventions. Throughout this work, the Bank will work in
coordination with governments, development partners, the
private sector, academics, civil society, and beneficiaries.