A review on dump slope stabilization by revegetation with reference to indigenous plant
KeywordsRevegetation, Coir mat, Vetiver grass, Lemon grass, Indigenous plant, Selection of plant species
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AbstractAbstract The waste, subgrade ROM and fine dumps of iron ore mines are characterized by high rock fragment contents, low moisture retention capacity, higher bulk density, low nutrients, lower pH and elevated metal concentrations. Use of suitable revegetation programme, that require the selection of right type of plants to be used vis-à-vis the site condition and characteristics, can enhance the long-term stability, both mechanical and ecological, of dumps (waste, subgrade ROM and fines) through providing vegetative cover to control soil erosion and gully formation, consolidation of dump top and side surfaces, binding the loose particles through intricate roof system, etc. This paper overviews the roles of revegetation programme that can be used where vegetation is considered to be the long-term answer to slope protection and erosion control. Various revegetation processes like Coir matting, lemon grass, vetiver grass and indigenous plant may find a wide range of usage in iron ore mines for dump stabilization. The Miyawaki method of plantation is more effective than the conventional method of plantation. This will lead to co-existence of plants, and as a matter of fact each plant draws from the other vital nutrients and they grow to become strong and healthy. The Miyawaki plantation technique aims at “survival of the fittest”, and the area which undergone such plantation has an ecology of their own. The indigenous plant has good binding capacity and helps to control soil erosion as well as improve the dump stability. These indigenous plant species include Shorea robusta (Sal), Dalbergia sisoo (Shisham), Karanj and Azadirachta (Neem). The growth of indigenous plants is dependent upon the soil quality as well as the organic matter of the dump material. The leaf debris plays an important role for improving the organic matter of the dump material to successfully implement the revegetation programme.