Fuyang Eco Park
Barclay Memorial Park
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Abstract「社基保育」（Community-Based Conservation）是強調「由下到上」（bottom-up）的自然資源管理模式。透過在地民眾的參與（participation），不僅減少政府在自然資源管理的支出，形成為社區居民認可的資源管理模式；更重要的，透過居民參與，社基保育連結地方自治（self-governance）與民主（democracy），實踐公共財合產（coproduction）與增效（synergy）的效果。因此社基保育不僅有生態保育的優勢，更有政治與經濟面的討論意義。 以往對社基保育的研究，多以鄉村或原住民地區的資源管理為研究範例，這些地區藉由居民的共議或傳統文化，獲得居民認同，刺激居民主動參與。然而若將研究焦點轉向都市地區，社基保育能否發揮相同功效？透過本研究的兩個案例—台北市富陽自然生態公園與台南市巴克禮紀念公園，社基保育在都市社區中仍有實行的可能。但相較鄉村與原民社區，都市社基保育的參與者更多，彼此溝通協調需要更多成本，形成集體行動也更不容易。本研究兩個案例中的里長，皆發揮動員居民的功能，並代表居民和其他參與者如政府、非營利組織溝通，降低居民參與的成本，營造居民集體行動的雛形。而政府、非營利組織與居民在社基保育過程中的關係，將影響社基保育能否達成在地落實的目標。
Community-Based Conservation is the model emphasizing “bottom-up” power of managing natural resources. It reduces the government’s cost of resource management, and becomes a widely accepted model by the locals through their participation. Furthermore, it combines Coproduction, Synergy, local Self-Governance, and Democracy Governance through the locals’ direct participation. Therefore, Community-Based Conservation not only has advantage in ecological conservation, but also shows importance in politics and economics. Previously, the researches on Community-Based Conservation often take resource management models in rural and indigenous areas as their cases. These models obtain the residents’ identity and stimulate their active participation by their discussion or the influence of traditional culture. But if we transfer the researches’ focus to urban areas, can Community-Based Conservation play the same role? Through the two cases in this thesis: Fuyang Eco Park in Taipei and Barclay Memorial Park in Tainan, it is possible to implement Community-Based Conservation in urban areas. However, compared with rural and indigenous areas, there are more participators in urban areas. It costs more to make them coordinate and communicate with each other well. Consequently, it is very important to inspire the locals to participate in Community-Based Conservation. In these two cases, both Neighborhood magistrates construct the model by mobilizing the residents, communicating with different participators such as the government, non-profit organizations, and reducing the cost of their participation. The relationship between the government, non-profit organizations and the residents in the process of Community-Based Conservation will affect the fulfillment in urban areas.